Presentation on theme: "Improving Group Dynamics such as Climate, Communication, Power, and Leadership Chapter 9."— Presentation transcript:
Improving Group Dynamics such as Climate, Communication, Power, and Leadership Chapter 9
Climate To increase the Communication Climate of the Group Situation one should start by simply working on the Basics Listen – think about what we have studied thus far about listening effectively Respect other members Have a positive mindset Expect the best outcome and act accordingly
Build Cohesiveness (in the book) Cohesiveness is the degree to which an individual feel connected to and committed to the group. Create shared goals, norms, and values Engage in shared group activities – consider getting together in a social situation such as dinner/pizza. Decrease internal threats – make everyone feel that he/she has an important role to play. See the good in others Make progress toward the goal Do not leave the group meeting without making some future plans – even if it is only a time to meet WARNING: Can have TOO MUCH of a Good Thing
Communication Remember that Increased interaction equals increased satisfaction among group members 1. Impacted by: Patterns of interaction Chain – a common style used in the military Communication follows from one person to another. Most efficient requires the least interaction Not reliable for lengthy or complex issues Wheel: Gatekeeper (hub), one person acts as a clearinghouse, receiving and relaying messages to other members Works well when one person is more available to meet with all members via , etc. or when relationships are strained between some members. All-Channel Members all meet face-to-face Greatest interaction; greatest satisfaction
2. Communication is also impacted by Seating arrangements Circular better than rectangular Members at ends of table are seen as: Less friendly more powerful and influential
Power Power is the ability to influence others All members of a group possess some degree of power.
They speak up in group discussion without dominating others, They demonstrate their competence on the subject being discussed They observe group norms They have support of other members. Some factors tend to increase a person's power
Types of Power: Legitimate: title or position Coercive Expert Power which comes from what other group members feel a member knows or can do Reward Referent Information Power which comes from a member’s knowledge to help the group reach its goal.
What is leadership? Do you think some people are more likely to become leaders than others? Do some people lead more effectively than others? What things determine the best way to lead a group? Leadership
Trait Theory– basically maintain that some people are “born to be leaders” and possess Charisma Excellent social skills. Talk more often /fluently. Regarded as more popular, cooperative Possess goal-related skills that help groups perform tasks. More intelligent and more dependable. Want the role as leader and act in ways to help them achieve it. Tend to be slightly taller, heavier, and physically more attractive than other members. However, research shows that Charisma may be the result rather than the cause of effective leadership.
Styles of Leadership Authoritarian Authoritative, take charge Rely on legitimate, coercive, and reward power “this is what to do and how to do it” Best in stressful or time sensitive situations Democratic invite member involvement in decision making “Suggestions anyone?” Best when the situation is non-stressful This style is more highly correlated with success Laissez-faire Leaderless collection of individuals
1. Are there times when each of these styles may be effective? 2. How do we decide which style to use?
Situational Leadership Leadership style based on circumstances If conditions are highly favorable or highly unfavorable use task oriented approach (Fiedler) Highly favorable: Leader has high power Relationship with others is strong Group task is clear Use delegation Style = Democratic/Laissez-faire Highly unfavorable : Leader has low power Relationship with others is weak Provide specific instructions and closely supervise. Style: Authoritarian
Hersey and Blanchard Situational Model If a group is comprised of highly motivated, knowledgeable, experienced, and responsible individuals then they will need less direct task guidance and more social support. If a group is less experienced, motivated, knowledgeable, and responsible then a more task-oriented approach will work best. A well-seasoned group may need little supervision at all. Remember, each situation is different and leadership styles should vary as well.
Decision Making in Groups
Types of Decision-Making Majority Rule Most people happy; some resentful Minority Rule Good for minor, relatively basic decisions Expert Rule Authority Rule Good for quick decision or routine matter Consensus Greatest group satisfaction
Group Problem Solving
Problem-Solving Reflective Thinking Process Organized pattern of problem solving Six steps: 1. Identify problem sometimes this isn’t as clear as you think 2. Analyze problem what criteria or guidelines should be followed in determining solutions 3. Develop Creative Solutions do not evaluate at this step 4. Evaluate Possible Solutions 5. Implement the Plan 6. Follow up on Solution
Creative Solutions Brainstorming Ban Killer Looks or Phrases do not evaluated ideas during this process Encourage Freewheeling any ideas go, do not limit group creativity Use Kaleidoscope Thinking (Piggybacking) combine ideas and use one idea to build on another Write Ideas Down
Nominal Group Technique Each person: Writes a list of ideas Offers one idea which is placed on board Privately ranks ideas on scale of 1-5 Top Ideas are kept and critiqued