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A brief history of film History, terminology and technique. Film 1880-2006.

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Presentation on theme: "A brief history of film History, terminology and technique. Film 1880-2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 A brief history of film History, terminology and technique. Film

2 The earliest movie Moving pictures were known before the advent of the cinema and commercial film. The zoetrope gave the illusion of movement as the pictures revolved in the drum and the viewer looked through the slot of the view finder.

3 The earliest movie Commercial films were brief five minute glimpses of everyday activity shown on a kinetoscope

4 The earliest movie Moving pictures are an optical illusion. They are a series of still pictures projected rapidly on a screen so that the brain - eye thinks it sees movement.

5 Terminology Film has a terminology that is important when discussing the action seen on screen. Deep Focus: In these shots the picture shows all the scene in focus from foreground to background.

6 Terminology Film has a terminology that is important when discussing the action seen on screen. Shallow Focus: In these shots the picture shows the foreground in focus with the background out of focus

7 Terminology Film has a terminology that is important when discussing the action seen on screen. Establishing Shot: These are shots at the beginning of an action that show where the action is taking place. They are usually a wide angle shot.

8 Terminology Film has a terminology that is important when discussing the action seen on screen. Establishing Shot: These are shots at the beginning of an action that show where the action is taking place. They are usually a wide angle shot. Sometimes a particular land mark will serve to establish time & place.

9 Terminology Film has a terminology that is important when discussing the action seen on screen. Long Shot The camera reveals the subject from head to foot.

10 Terminology Film has a terminology that is important when discussing the action seen on screen. Mid Shot The camera reveals the subject from head to waist or from waist to foot.

11 Terminology Film has a terminology that is important when discussing the action seen on screen. Mid Shot The camera reveals the subject from head to waist or from waist to foot. Details of costume as well as face are shown to the audience.

12 Terminology Film has a terminology that is important when discussing the action seen on screen. Two shot mid-shot The camera reveals head to waist shots of two people in the same shot. (Can also be shot as a two shot close up.) The subjects are usually talking to each other

13 Terminology Film has a terminology that is important when discussing the action seen on screen. Close Up: The camera is close to the subject and reveals a detail (head & shoulders) of the subject.

14 Terminology Close Up: The camera is close to the subject and reveals a detail (head & shoulders) of the subject. It can reveal aspects of character the director wants you to see in the subject. Particularly when combined with a selected camera angle. Here the low angle is uncomplimentary to Queen Mary.

15 Terminology Film has a terminology that is important when discussing the action seen on screen. Extreme close up The camera reveals a fine detail of the subject. E.g. an eye, the lips, an ear… These shots can convey emotion or focus attention on the behaviour or object

16 Terminology Film has a terminology that is important when discussing the action seen on screen. Extreme close up The camera reveals a fine detail of the subject. E.g. an eye, the lips, an ear….the words on a sign

17 Terminology Film can use a matte ( a mask around the object ) to focus attention on the important piece of the subject. This was often used in silent films to direct attention to the writing or words on a page. They can also isolate characters from the action or signal their relationship..

18 Terminology Film has a terminology that is important when discussing the action seen on screen. Camera Angles These can vary depending on the location of the camera above / below or at eye level. Low Angle the camera looks up at the subject.

19 Terminology Film has a terminology that is important when discussing the action seen on screen. Camera Angles These can vary depending on the location of the camera above / below or at eye level. Low Angle the camera looks up at the subject. It can make the subject look imposing and powerful.

20 Terminology Film has a terminology that is important when discussing the action seen on screen. Camera Angles These can vary depending on the location of the camera above / below or at eye level. High Angle the camera looks down at the subject. It can make the subject look small, insignificant, weak...

21 Terminology The camera can also: Tilt - move 180 o up & down on on its tripod Pan - move 180 o on a horizontal plane (left - right - left ) on its tripod. Track or Dolly - move beside the character has s/he moves through the set. The lens on the camera can also zoom in & out from the action. Each of these movements will be used to create a particular representation of action in the film.

22 Terminology Symbolism This is important in implying or representing an emotion, an attitude or possibly what the subject is considering doing. Sometimes the action implies all that is needed to understand the situation = the scream = fear.

23 Terminology Film has a terminology that is important when discussing the action seen on screen. Symbolism This is important in implying or representing an emotion, an attitude or possibly what the subject is considering doing. The subject in the foreground is indicating that he is suffering or emotionally upset.

24 Terminology Film has a terminology that is important when discussing the action seen on screen. Symbolism This is important in implying or representing an emotion, an attitude or possibly what the subject is considering doing. The shattered mirror here represents confusion in the subjects thinking. This is called: Metonymy

25 Terminology Symbolism This is important in implying or representing an emotion, an attitude or possibly what the subject is considering doing. Sometimes the part is to be seen as a whole. Here the books are a barrier for the subject. Books represent ideas = the subject is sheltering from attack behind these ideas. This is called: synecdoche

26 Terminology Symbolism This is important in implying or representing an emotion, an attitude or possibly what the subject is considering doing. Sometimes the part is to be seen as a whole. Here the money implies the woman has been paid for sex thus representing her sense of guilt and self betrayal. This is called: synecdoche

27 Terminology Lighting: Lighting can alter our perception of a character or situation by creating areas of light and shade within a shot. A shot that has lots of light suggests humour, pleasure or relaxation. A shot with lots of shadow suggests depression, sadness or a threat. Compare these two slides of the same man to see the effect.

28 Terminology Lighting: Lighting can alter our perception of a character or situation by creating areas of light and shade within a shot. A shot that has lots of light suggests humour, pleasure or relaxation. A shot with lots of shadow suggests depression, sadness or a threat. Compare these two slides of the same man to see the effect.

29 Terminology Lighting: Same man - different lighting and angles: The first photo uses a low angled light to create shadows - the man looks to be sad and remote. The second photo uses softer, natural light and a lower camera angle - he looks serene and amiable.

30 Make up This is used to alter the actors features so that he or she can represent the image of the character required by the director of the film.

31 Make up This is used to alter the actors features so that he or she can represent the image of the character required by the director of the film. Skilful makeup can age the actor or make his appearance totally alien.

32 Costume Costume serves to establish: time and place Social position Social attitudes / beliefs Character type These are conveyed in the codes and conventions associated with costume. e.g. In westerns the good guy wears a white hat while the bad guy wears a black one. River Queen - set in 19th Century New Zealand. Note the period costume.

33 Colour Colour can be used to indicate emotions, possible relationships as in this still from Dracula (1993) where Lucy is in red - the colour associated with Dracula thus indicating her victim status.

34 Colour Colour can show how the audience is to react to the character. Dark or cold colours can indicate hatred of the character while light or warm colours could suggest trust and pleasure. Compare the slides of Queen Mary and Elizabeth to see how colour is being used to influence attitude to each character.


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