3Ancient Egypt Earliest recorded contraception dates back 3,000 years. Smooth pebbles were inserted into the uteri of camels to prevent them from getting pregnant on long trips across the desert.Suppositories made from elephant and crocodile dung were inserted prior to intercourse, which has a high concentration of bile salt. Therefore the pH of this dung is the most acidic in the animal kingdom and was both a blocking agent and spermicide.
4Other Ancient Cultures The Talmud, an ancient Hebrew text, recommends manually removing the semen and douching with soap and vinegar.Chinese scrolls recommend dabbing the cervix with a mixture of olive oil and honey, inhibiting both fetal growth and ovulation.Ancient Greece used mixture of acacia gum, honey, and seed wool which breaks down to lactic acid.In India, wild carrot seed was used as a post-coital contraceptive. Studies have shown that these seeds are a spermicide.
5More Recent HistoryCondoms date back to 1546 made from everything from animal intestine to animal skins to okra pods. The term condom is thought to have originated from a Dr. Condom, a personal physician of King Charles II.Origins of the pill came about by chance. A researcher discovered certain tribes in Mexico were eating a wild yam which seemed to act as a contraceptive. On analysis he was able to extract progesterone from these yams and formulate the first pill.
7Condoms Male and female. Failure rate if used perfectly is 2% in male, 5% in female.Typical failure rate is 15% for male, 21% for female.Protection against STDs.
8Cervical Caps Failure rate is 29%. Can stay in place up to 48 hours. Recommend pap 3 months after initial use due to increase chance of dysplasia which drops off after a year.Does not protect against STDs.May need to be refitted postpartum.
9Diaphragms Perfect use failure rate 6%, actual 16%. Requires fitting, increases UTI.Recommended use with spermicide.Some protection against STDs.
10Spermicide Used independently, failure rate 29%. Use with condoms no longer recommended.
14Combination PillMechanism of suppressing ovulation. Perfect use failure rate is 0.3%, actual 6%.Advantages: shorter, lighter scheduled menses, no ovulation pain, sexual spontaneity.Generic vs. brand name? FDA allows variability in potency in generics of -20% to +25% in dosing of generics .Current brand oc available: Loestrin 24 Fe, Lo Loestrin Fe, Beyaz, Natazia, Lybrel, Seasonique.
15Controversy around Drospirenone Drospirenone: a derivative of spironolactone found in Yasmin, Yaz, and Beyaz.Decreasing androgen side effects.Hyperkalemia (renal insufficiency, hepatic dysfunction, and adrenal insufficiency).Increased risk of blood clots.
17Choosing OCs for your patient New start (Lo loestrin)Endometriosis (Seasonque, Lybrel)Menstrual migraines (Seasinque, Lybrel)Androgen excess/ PCO (Beyaz)Breastfeeding (Lo loestrin)Breakthrough bleeding (higher dose oc, Natazia)Premenopausal (Lo loestrin)
18NuvaRing® Very low dose 54 mm4 mmVery low dose120 g/day etonogestrel15 g/day ethinyl estradiolFlexible transparent ring Outer diameter: 54 mm Cross-sectional diameter: 4 mmOne ring per cycle weeks ring-in week ring-free
19Ortho Evra PatchHigher doses of active estrogen in the blood stream than previously thought could increase the chance of DVT.Less effective in women 190 lbs or above.
20Lunelle Monthly injectable combination birth control. No longer available since 2002 due to lack of potency assurance.
22Pills (Mini Pills) Candidates for usage Breast feeding History of DVT Over 35 years of ageSmokersHistory of HTN
23Depo-Provera injection Weight gainDUBFertility post-useDue to decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) in users, the FDA recommends other forms of bc be used after 2 years of consecutive use if other forms of bc available.
24Implanon Follow-up to Norplant, which was discontinued in 2002. Single implant 4cm long and 2mm wide.Placed under the skin of the upper arm.Used for 3 years.
26ParaGard (Copper T)Made from polyethylene with a solid sleeve of copper.Introduced in 1984.Primary mechanism of action is as a spermicide (releasing toxic cooper ions, causing phagocytosis, and causing crx mucous thickening).20% of physicians still believe it has an abortive effect.Biggest benefits are its long term use (10 years) and its non-use of steroids.PID, pregnancy, perforation.
27 Mirena 5-year IUD impregnated with progesterone. Similar mechanism of action as the ParaGard with anovulatory effect.FDA approved for the treatment of DUB and perhaps premenopausal symptoms.Use in nulliparous and young patients.
30Intrauterine Tubal Occlusion EssureUses a nickel titanium spring coil with polyethylene fibers. These fibers cause chronic inflammation and scarring.Can be placed hysteroscopically in an outpatient setting with local anesthesia.May be preferred in obese pts, pts wishing no scars, and pts with hx of adhesions.Disadvantages are 3 month waiting period followed by histerosalpingogram, difficult to visualize ostia, perforation of tube, or tubal spasms.
32Intrauterine tubal occlusion AdianaSimilar to Essure, is placed hysterscopically, but uses a silicone pellet the size of a grain of rice and long with low level radiofrequency energy to create a superficial lesion in the tube.This technique also needs to have a follow up histersalpingogram 3 months post procedure.
35Progesterone only vaginal ring Gyenfix Copper IUD Lasts for a full year.Gyenfix Copper IUD6 sleeves of copper on a string embedded in the fundus.Lasts 3 years and in use in Europe.FibroplantProgestin-releasing fiber fixed to the uterine wall.Norplant IISimilar to original Norplant but only 2 rods.Lasts up to 3 years.
36Quinacrine sterilization Contraceptive sprayProgesterone delivered to your forearm.Uses technology similar to EvaMist.Once a month pillUses technology similar to Boniva.Quinacrine sterilizationInvolves insertion of 7 pellets into the uterus with an IUD-type tool.Repeated 2 to 3 months in a row.This causes tubular scarring.Currently used in some third world countries, it remains controversial due to lack of knowing if there are any long-term side effects.