8 II. SEMANTIC DEVELOPMENT** A. IntroductionSemantic development is closely related to development in motor, social, and cognitive abilitiesThe better a child’s abilities in those areas, the more language he receives and practices
9 Preschoolers’ vocabularies grow fast:** 18-24 months: expressive vocab goes from 50 to wordsBy 36 mos of age, children will have expressive vocabularies of 900-1,000 wordsAt 5 years, by kindergarten, they should be using 2,100-2,200 words
10 By 6 years of age…**Many children have receptive vocabularies of up to 14,000 words
12 B. Word Learning**Fast mapping —a hypothetical process where children associate a word and its referent after the first or initial exposureExtended mapping —new words are gradually expanded and modified as additional experiences become available
13 For example:**A child might learn the word “horse” when he goes on a merry-go-round with his dadThen, he extends his understanding as he sees horses in pastures and reads about them in books
14 Extended mapping “behind” for a 4-year old with LI:
15 Children learn new words more quickly when these words…** Are composed of phonemes that the child can produce (“cow” vs. “synthesize”)Are object words as opposed to action wordsAre reduplicated syllables (mama)
16 We can help children learn new words faster by:
17 For example, let’s say you want to teach “pig;” you’d want to make sure it was the only new word in that context**
18 C. Dimensional Words**These words are adjective pairs that indicate dimensions of objectsE.g., big/little, wide/narrowUsually, big/little is the first pair to be mastered (3 yrs.)
19 D. Development of Relational Terms** These terms express relationships in domains such as color, location, size, family roles, and temporal sequencesThese terms can be hard because they are often relativeFor example, whose mom is the skinniest? Whose dad is the tallest?
20 E. Color Words**By 4-5 years old, most preschoolers can name blue, red, yellowMore subtle color shades are acquired later
26 C. Discourse Skills**Discourse, or conversation, is a series of consecutive utterances shared by at least 2 peopleCohesion refers to the relatedness of successive utterances in discourse
27 D. Play Behavior**In symbolic play, the child allows one thing to represent anotherA kleenex may represent a doll’s blanketFor example, a stick may represent a gunSymbolic play is closely associated to the development of words, which are symbols which stand for things
28 In solitary play…**Child plays independently, even if other children are present
31 Dore’s Conversational Acts** Page 273 to the middle of p. 275 are not on the testBegin reading at the heading “Discourse Skills—the Conversational Game”
32 **d. Style shifting —this aspect of presupposition involves having the speaker modify how something is said based on the status of the listenerPreschoolers as young as 3 years of age can use please, could you, would you.
34 **The setting provides the context and characters The goal provides the characters’ motivationThe episode describes the events related to the goalThe outcome provides the conclusion and states whether or not the goal was attained
36 HEAPS—30 mos.—collections of unrelated utterances (p. 285) F. Narrative Levels**PRIMITIVE NARRATIVES/CENTERING—4 yrs.—there is an identifiable theme and elements are conceptually related to the core topic (p. 286)SEQUENCES/CHAINING—3 yrs.—elements of story are related to a central topic, but are not necessarily chronologically sequenced (p. 286)HEAPS—30 mos.—collections of unrelated utterances (p. 285)
39 Presuppositional skills include use of:** a. Anaphoric reference, or the role pronouns play in referring back to words that occurred just prior to themMy mom called, and she asked me to come home.I saw Jason, and he said to tell you hello.
40 Because of anaphoric reference, you would not say things like:** “The Avengers movie was awesome, and I’m so glad I got to see this movie.”Scarlett Johanssen was amazing, and Scarlett is such a good actress.”
43 3. Turntaking**Some researchers say that even preschoolers rarely interrupt their partners because they are sensitive to the need for turntaking during conversation2-3 year olds typically have 1-2 turns per topicOlder preschoolers may have up to 5 turns per topic
46 IV. SOCIAL SKILLS TRAINING** ASHA Schools Conference 2012: Pamela WileySaid we need to begin early—even in preschoolProblems in social skills can lead to negative consequences that can last a lifetime
47 Wiley 2012—possible consequences of poor social skills:
49 V. EMERGENT LITERACY**One way to enhance preschoolers’ emergent literacy skills is through print referencingThis occurs when an adult uses verbal and nonverbal cues to direct a child to the features of written language during shared storybook reading
50 When adults are reading with children, they can: 1.2.3.
51 If young children are fairly hyper and don’t sit well during book reading:** Be exciting and dramatic when you read—use different funny voicesUse books with manipulable parts like flaps, buttonsShort books that have lots of pictures
52 The iPad can work well…*** Some apps are very engaging and interactiveI have successfully used these in my job in the schools with ages 3-18 yearsThe Tale of Peter Rabbit, Miss Spider’s Tea Party