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Presentation on theme: "PRESCHOOLERS: PRAGMATIC AND SEMANTIC DEVELOPMENT (2-5 years)"— Presentation transcript:


A. Cognitive Development 24 mos—follows simple verbal commands 27 mos—points to and names familiar pictures 36 months—gives “two” objects on request


4 B. Social Development**
27 mos—communicates desire and orders others around 30 mos—demands caregiver’s attention, throws tantrums when needs are not understood


6 C. Motor Development** 27 mos—walks up and down stairs, does not alternate feet 36 mos—constructs a tower of 7-8 blocks 39 mos—dresses and undressses self


A. Introduction Semantic development is closely related to development in motor, social, and cognitive abilities The better a child’s abilities in those areas, the more language he receives and practices

9 Preschoolers’ vocabularies grow fast:**
18-24 months: expressive vocab goes from 50 to words By 36 mos of age, children will have expressive vocabularies of 900-1,000 words At 5 years, by kindergarten, they should be using 2,100-2,200 words

10 By 6 years of age…** Many children have receptive vocabularies of up to 14,000 words

11 Montgomery 2011:

12 B. Word Learning** Fast mapping —a hypothetical process where children associate a word and its referent after the first or initial exposure Extended mapping —new words are gradually expanded and modified as additional experiences become available

13 For example:** A child might learn the word “horse” when he goes on a merry-go-round with his dad Then, he extends his understanding as he sees horses in pastures and reads about them in books

14 Extended mapping “behind” for a 4-year old with LI:

15 Children learn new words more quickly when these words…**
Are composed of phonemes that the child can produce (“cow” vs. “synthesize”) Are object words as opposed to action words Are reduplicated syllables (mama)

16 We can help children learn new words faster by:

17 For example, let’s say you want to teach “pig;” you’d want to make sure it was the only new word in that context**

18 C. Dimensional Words** These words are adjective pairs that indicate dimensions of objects E.g., big/little, wide/narrow Usually, big/little is the first pair to be mastered (3 yrs.)

19 D. Development of Relational Terms**
These terms express relationships in domains such as color, location, size, family roles, and temporal sequences These terms can be hard because they are often relative For example, whose mom is the skinniest? Whose dad is the tallest?

20 E. Color Words** By 4-5 years old, most preschoolers can name blue, red, yellow More subtle color shades are acquired later

21 F. Spatial Words

22 G. Kinship Words** The first ones to develop usually refer to immediate family—mother, father, sister, brother Then, children gradually learn other layers of relatives

23 H. Temporal Words These refer to how things are related to each other in time 1. 2. 3.

A. Introduction For optimal development of pragmatic skills, children need both varied and routine experiences

25 B. Private and Socialized Speech

26 C. Discourse Skills** Discourse, or conversation, is a series of consecutive utterances shared by at least 2 people Cohesion refers to the relatedness of successive utterances in discourse

27 D. Play Behavior** In symbolic play, the child allows one thing to represent another A kleenex may represent a doll’s blanket For example, a stick may represent a gun Symbolic play is closely associated to the development of words, which are symbols which stand for things

28 In solitary play…** Child plays independently, even if other children are present

29 In parallel play…

30 In cooperative play…

31 Dore’s Conversational Acts**
Page 273 to the middle of p. 275 are not on the test Begin reading at the heading “Discourse Skills—the Conversational Game”

32 **d. Style shifting —this aspect of presupposition involves having the speaker modify how something is said based on the status of the listener Preschoolers as young as 3 years of age can use please, could you, would you.

33 E. Preschoolers’ Storytelling

34 **The setting provides the context and characters
The goal provides the characters’ motivation The episode describes the events related to the goal The outcome provides the conclusion and states whether or not the goal was attained


36 HEAPS—30 mos.—collections of unrelated utterances (p. 285)
F. Narrative Levels** PRIMITIVE NARRATIVES/CENTERING—4 yrs.—there is an identifiable theme and elements are conceptually related to the core topic (p. 286) SEQUENCES/CHAINING—3 yrs.—elements of story are related to a central topic, but are not necessarily chronologically sequenced (p. 286) HEAPS—30 mos.—collections of unrelated utterances (p. 285)

37 G. Behaviors that contribute to cohesion:

38 2. Presupposition

39 Presuppositional skills include use of:**
a. Anaphoric reference, or the role pronouns play in referring back to words that occurred just prior to them My mom called, and she asked me to come home. I saw Jason, and he said to tell you hello.

40 Because of anaphoric reference, you would not say things like:**
“The Avengers movie was awesome, and I’m so glad I got to see this movie.” Scarlett Johanssen was amazing, and Scarlett is such a good actress.”

41 b.

42 c.

43 3. Turntaking** Some researchers say that even preschoolers rarely interrupt their partners because they are sensitive to the need for turntaking during conversation 2-3 year olds typically have 1-2 turns per topic Older preschoolers may have up to 5 turns per topic

44 4. Topic maintenance

45 Aspects of topic maintenance include:

ASHA Schools Conference 2012: Pamela Wiley Said we need to begin early—even in preschool Problems in social skills can lead to negative consequences that can last a lifetime

47 Wiley 2012—possible consequences of poor social skills:

48 Wiley 2012—Skill steps:

49 V. EMERGENT LITERACY** One way to enhance preschoolers’ emergent literacy skills is through print referencing This occurs when an adult uses verbal and nonverbal cues to direct a child to the features of written language during shared storybook reading

50 When adults are reading with children, they can:
1. 2. 3.

51 If young children are fairly hyper and don’t sit well during book reading:**
Be exciting and dramatic when you read—use different funny voices Use books with manipulable parts like flaps, buttons Short books that have lots of pictures

52 The iPad can work well…***
Some apps are very engaging and interactive I have successfully used these in my job in the schools with ages 3-18 years The Tale of Peter Rabbit, Miss Spider’s Tea Party

53 According to Hulit et al. 2011:

54 Bliss, McCabe, & Mahecha 2001:

55 Turnbull & Justice 2012 describe print awareness:

56 1. 2. 3. 4.

57 Research has shown that…


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