Presentation on theme: "PRESCHOOLERS: PRAGMATIC AND SEMANTIC DEVELOPMENT (2-5 years)"— Presentation transcript:
PRESCHOOLERS: PRAGMATIC AND SEMANTIC DEVELOPMENT (2-5 years)
I. DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES** A. Cognitive Development 24 mosfollows simple verbal commands 27 mospoints to and names familiar pictures 36 monthsgives two objects on request
B. Social Development** 27 moscommunicates desire and orders others around 30 mosdemands caregivers attention, throws tantrums when needs are not understood
C. Motor Development** 27 moswalks up and down stairs, does not alternate feet 36 mosconstructs a tower of 7-8 blocks 39 mosdresses and undressses self
II. SEMANTIC DEVELOPMENT** A. Introduction Semantic development is closely related to development in motor, social, and cognitive abilities The better a childs abilities in those areas, the more language he receives and practices
Preschoolers vocabularies grow fast:** months: expressive vocab goes from 50 to words By 36 mos of age, children will have expressive vocabularies of 900-1,000 words At 5 years, by kindergarten, they should be using 2,100-2,200 words
By 6 years of age…** Many children have receptive vocabularies of up to 14,000 words
B. Word Learning** Fast mapping a hypothetical process where children associate a word and its referent after the first or initial exposure Extended mapping new words are gradually expanded and modified as additional experiences become available
For example:** A child might learn the word horse when he goes on a merry-go-round with his dad Then, he extends his understanding as he sees horses in pastures and reads about them in books
Extended mapping behind for a 4-year old with LI:
Children learn new words more quickly when these words…** Are composed of phonemes that the child can produce (cow vs. synthesize) Are object words as opposed to action words Are reduplicated syllables (mama)
We can help children learn new words faster by:
For example, lets say you want to teach pig; youd want to make sure it was the only new word in that context**
C. Dimensional Words** These words are adjective pairs that indicate dimensions of objects E.g., big/little, wide/narrow Usually, big/little is the first pair to be mastered (3 yrs.)
D. Development of Relational Terms** These terms express relationships in domains such as color, location, size, family roles, and temporal sequences These terms can be hard because they are often relative For example, whose mom is the skinniest? Whose dad is the tallest?
E. Color Words** By 4-5 years old, most preschoolers can name blue, red, yellow More subtle color shades are acquired later
F. Spatial Words
G. Kinship Words** The first ones to develop usually refer to immediate familymother, father, sister, brother Then, children gradually learn other layers of relatives
H. Temporal Words These refer to how things are related to each other in time
III. PRAGMATIC DEVELOPMENT A. Introduction For optimal development of pragmatic skills, children need both varied and routine experiences
B. Private and Socialized Speech
C. Discourse Skills** Discourse, or conversation, is a series of consecutive utterances shared by at least 2 people Cohesion refers to the relatedness of successive utterances in discourse
D. Play Behavior** In symbolic play, the child allows one thing to represent another A kleenex may represent a dolls blanket For example, a stick may represent a gun Symbolic play is closely associated to the development of words, which are symbols which stand for things
In solitary play…** Child plays independently, even if other children are present
In parallel play…
In cooperative play…
Dores Conversational Acts** Page 273 to the middle of p. 275 are not on the test Begin reading at the heading Discourse Skillsthe Conversational Game
**d. Style shifting this aspect of presupposition involves having the speaker modify how something is said based on the status of the listener Preschoolers as young as 3 years of age can use please, could you, would you.
E. Preschoolers Storytelling
**The setting provides the context and characters The goal provides the characters motivation The episode describes the events related to the goal The outcome provides the conclusion and states whether or not the goal was attained
F. Narrative Levels** PRIMITIVE NARRATIVES/CENTERING4 yrs.there is an identifiable theme and elements are conceptually related to the core topic (p. 286) SEQUENCES/CHAINING3 yrs.elements of story are related to a central topic, but are not necessarily chronologically sequenced (p. 286) HEAPS30 mos.collections of unrelated utterances (p. 285)
G. Behaviors that contribute to cohesion: 1.
Presuppositional skills include use of:** a. Anaphoric reference, or the role pronouns play in referring back to words that occurred just prior to them My mom called, and she asked me to come home. I saw Jason, and he said to tell you hello.
Because of anaphoric reference, you would not say things like:** The Avengers movie was awesome, and Im so glad I got to see this movie. Scarlett Johanssen was amazing, and Scarlett is such a good actress.
3. Turntaking** Some researchers say that even preschoolers rarely interrupt their partners because they are sensitive to the need for turntaking during conversation 2-3 year olds typically have 1-2 turns per topic Older preschoolers may have up to 5 turns per topic
4. Topic maintenance
Aspects of topic maintenance include: a.
IV. SOCIAL SKILLS TRAINING** ASHA Schools Conference 2012: Pamela Wiley Said we need to begin earlyeven in preschool Problems in social skills can lead to negative consequences that can last a lifetime
Wiley 2012possible consequences of poor social skills:
Wiley 2012Skill steps:
V. EMERGENT LITERACY** One way to enhance preschoolers emergent literacy skills is through print referencing This occurs when an adult uses verbal and nonverbal cues to direct a child to the features of written language during shared storybook reading
When adults are reading with children, they can:
If young children are fairly hyper and dont sit well during book reading:** Be exciting and dramatic when you readuse different funny voices Use books with manipulable parts like flaps, buttons Short books that have lots of pictures
The iPad can work well…*** Some apps are very engaging and interactive I have successfully used these in my job in the schools with ages 3-18 years The Tale of Peter Rabbit, Miss Spiders Tea Party