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Studying How Children Learn from Media

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1 Studying How Children Learn from Media
Screen Research: Studying How Children Learn from Media Georgene Troseth Department of Psychology & Human Development Peabody College, Vanderbilt

2 Einsteins Everywhere? 12- to 18-month-olds
Parents given a DVD or vocabulary words written on a piece of paper 1 month exposure, 5 times per week Control group: no added activities CONTROL GROUP: CONTROL FOR NORMAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT OVER THE COURSE OF THE MONTH DeLoache, Chiong, Sherman, Islam, Vanderborght, Troseth, Strouse, & O’Doherty (2010, Psych. Science)

3 Results Children who viewed the DVD did not learn any more words than the control group did Highest level of learning occurred in the no-video parent-teaching condition Parents who liked the DVD overestimated how much their children learned from it REPLICATED IN 2 LABS.

4 The “Video Deficit” in Toddler Learning
Toddlers learn better from a person who is there/ a real event vs. one on a screen Imitating a novel behavior Learning a word

5 What’s Hard About Learning from Video?
Symbolic thinking: Realizing that an image on a screen stands for reality Realizing that a person on a screen is offering relevant information

6 Studying Toddlers Short attention span Impulsive Limited language
Immature motor development Changeable emotions Constraints on studying cognitive development in children. With really young kids, can’t ask them what they are thinking. Not using spoken language very well yet

7 Search Task Simple problem solving “game” Find a toy hidden in a room
Child does not see hiding event directly Information on where to find the object comes from a symbolic medium (video screen) To solve the problem, child needs to apply info from the symbol (video) to a real situation A task that has proven useful. Keeps children’s interest and willing cooperation; basically nonverbal. Little loss of data due to children “melting down” in upset.

8 Troseth & DeLoache (1998, Child Development)
Find the Hidden Toy Participants: 2- and 2-1/2-year-olds . Live Video Real Window Troseth & DeLoache (1998, Child Development)

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10 Let the Younger Kids Watch Themselves on Live Video
IN THIS STUDY, FOUND THAT TO USE VIDEO SYMBOLICALLY, 2-YEAR-OLDS JUST NEEDED EXPERIENCE SHOWING THEM VIDEO COULD STAND FOR REAL EVENT. SAW THEMSELVES, LIVE VIDEO AT HOME TOTAL OF AN HOUR, OVER COURSE OF 2 WEEKS. (HERE’S CHILD, OWN IMAGE, HAS JUST TURNED TO MOM BUT HAS BEEN WATCHING SELF.) THEIR PETS, SIBLINGS, AND PARENTS ON TV. IT APPARENTLY HELPED THEM TO ACHIEVE DUAL REPRESENTATION—TO SEE THE 2D IMAGE ON THE SCREEN, BUT ALSO THINK ABOUT THE REAL EVENT REPRESENTED. WHEN CAME TO LAB, COULD USE VIDEO OF E. HIDING TOY TO SEARCH CORRECTLY (GRAPH). IMPORTANTLY, ALSO COULD GENERALIZE NEW UNDERSTANDING TO DIFFERENT SYMBOL THAT HADN’T BEEN TRAINED. NEXT DAY, THEY USED _PHOTOS_ OF THE HIDING PLACES (GRAPH) TO FIND TOY. WITHOUT THIS EXPERIENCE, THE CONTROL GROUP—POORLY BOTH TASKS. . Troseth (2003, Developmental Psychology)

11 Learning from a Person on a Screen
Troseth, Saylor, & Archer (2006, Child Development) Telling on TV Telling in person TASK IS OBJECT RETRIEVAL TELLS THE CHILD WHERE TO FIND THE TOY, VERBALLY. ACROSS 2 STUDIES, MANIPULATED WHETHER CHILD MIGHT THINK A PERSON WAS A SOCIAL PARTNER GIVING RELEVANT INFO Finding game: “I hid Piglet under the blanket.” 27% correct % correct

12 69% correct on finding game
Video chat: Person on TV interacted with the child & parent for 5 minutes Then she revealed the toy’s location 69% correct on finding game

13 Todders & Video: Summary
Children do not expect TV to connect to reality Experience with video related to reality helped them to use information from video Social cues missing from video impair learning for very young viewers Providing those cues on video (e.g., contingent responsiveness) helped them learn IE Children don’t learn because they are smart.

14 Preschool Substantial evidence that children age 3 to 5 learn and get long-term benefits from watching Sesame Street (e.g., Anderson, Huston, Wright, et al., 2001) INCLUDES OUTCOMES LIKE BETTER GPA’S IN HIGH SCHOOL, AFTER CONTROLLING FOR PARENT INVOLVEMENT & EDUCATION, SES, ETC. FOUND BOTH IN MIDDLE CLASS AND IN LOWER SES. WE NOW HAVE EVIDENCE THAT PARENTS WATCHING A VIDEO WITH THEIR CHILDREN CAN IMPROVE LEARNING BY THIS POINT, CHILDREN TRULY ARE BECOMING SYMBOLIC THINKERS; THEY ARE BEGINNING TO DRAW AND WRITE, TO EXPRESS THE INTENT TO SYMBOLIZE (E.G., SCRIBBLE) & THEN CARRY IT OUT. THEY CAN LEARN FROM VIDEO, PICTURES, AND MODELS, AND ARE ON TO MASTERING CONVENTIONAL SYMBOLS LIKE LETTERS AND NUMBERS.

15 Strouse, O’Doherty, & Troseth (2013, Developmental Psychology)
Parent Co-viewing 3-year-olds 4-week study Children watch storybooks on video Pre- & post-test of vocabulary (story & general) Post-test story comprehension STANDARDIZED EXPRESSIVE VOCABULARY (EOW-PVT) IN PICTURE BOOK STUDIES, DIALOGIC QUESTIONING AFFECTED EXPRESSIVE MORE THAN RECEPTIVE VOCAB STORY-SPECIFIC VOCABULARY PROVIDING THE LABEL FOR AN ITEM FROM A STORY WHEN SHOWN A SCREEN SHOT STORY COMPREHENSION Strouse, O’Doherty, & Troseth (2013, Developmental Psychology)

16 4 Conditions Regular Video: Parents showed the videos to their children as normal Dialogic Questioning: Parents trained to pause the videos/ ask questions Directed attention: Parents labeled & described rather than questioning Dialogic Actress: Person on screen paused & asked questions (easier ones first, more difficult later)

17 Dialogic question prompts (simple to harder)
Completion – Fill in the blank. e.g., “I’ll huff, I’ll puff, I’ll ____” Recall – Remember something that happened in the story Open-ended – Short answer. e.g., “What do you think he’ll do next?” Wh questions – Start with Who, Where, When, Why, or What Distancing – Relating story contents to the child’s life -- e.g., “Do you remember when we saw the elephant at the zoo?” PARENTS INSTRUCTED TO START WITH THE SIMPLER WH QUESTIONS, USE MORE COMPLEX LIKE DISTANCING LA AFTER SEVERAL VIEWINGS.

18 Results Compared to “Watch as usual” group, Dialogic group improved in:
Standardized Expressive Vocabulary (EOW-PVT) Story-Specific Vocabulary Story Comprehension Dialogic Actress group learned almost as much about story (including story vocab) Directed Attention group scored in the middle (learned somewhat better than watching alone) children in the Dialogic group didn’t get more or less exposure due to parents’ “buy in” or the time consuming nature of dialogic questioning REMEMBER, THIS IS JUST IN ONE MONTH

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20 Current research E-books (kinds of hot spots/ interactivity) Tablets
Tapping and self-regulation Kind of interaction and learning


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