Presentation on theme: "Studying How Children Learn from Media"— Presentation transcript:
1Studying How Children Learn from Media Screen Research:Studying How Children Learn from MediaGeorgene TrosethDepartment of Psychology & Human DevelopmentPeabody College, Vanderbilt
2Einsteins Everywhere? 12- to 18-month-olds Parents given a DVD or vocabulary words written on a piece of paper1 month exposure, 5 times per weekControl group: no added activitiesCONTROL GROUP: CONTROL FOR NORMAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT OVER THE COURSE OF THE MONTHDeLoache, Chiong, Sherman, Islam, Vanderborght, Troseth, Strouse, & O’Doherty (2010, Psych. Science)
3ResultsChildren who viewed the DVD did not learn any more words than the control group didHighest level of learning occurred in the no-video parent-teaching conditionParents who liked the DVD overestimated how much their children learned from itREPLICATED IN 2 LABS.
4The “Video Deficit” in Toddler Learning Toddlers learn better from a person who is there/ a real event vs. one on a screenImitating a novel behaviorLearning a word
5What’s Hard About Learning from Video? Symbolic thinking: Realizing that an image on a screen stands for realityRealizing that a person on a screen is offering relevant information
6Studying Toddlers Short attention span Impulsive Limited language Immature motor developmentChangeable emotionsConstraints on studying cognitive development in children. With really young kids, can’t ask them what they are thinking. Not using spoken language very well yet
7Search Task Simple problem solving “game” Find a toy hidden in a room Child does not see hiding event directlyInformation on where to find the object comesfrom a symbolic medium (video screen)To solve the problem, child needs to apply info from the symbol (video) to a real situationA task that has proven useful. Keeps children’s interest and willing cooperation; basically nonverbal. Little loss of data due to children “melting down” in upset.
8Troseth & DeLoache (1998, Child Development) Find the Hidden ToyParticipants: 2- and 2-1/2-year-olds.Live VideoReal WindowTroseth & DeLoache (1998, Child Development)
10Let the Younger Kids Watch Themselves on Live Video IN THIS STUDY, FOUND THAT TO USE VIDEO SYMBOLICALLY, 2-YEAR-OLDS JUST NEEDED EXPERIENCE SHOWING THEM VIDEO COULD STAND FOR REAL EVENT.SAW THEMSELVES, LIVE VIDEO AT HOME TOTAL OF AN HOUR, OVER COURSE OF 2 WEEKS. (HERE’S CHILD, OWN IMAGE, HAS JUST TURNED TO MOM BUT HAS BEEN WATCHING SELF.) THEIR PETS, SIBLINGS, AND PARENTS ON TV.IT APPARENTLY HELPED THEM TO ACHIEVE DUAL REPRESENTATION—TO SEE THE 2D IMAGE ON THE SCREEN, BUT ALSO THINK ABOUT THE REAL EVENT REPRESENTED.WHEN CAME TO LAB, COULD USE VIDEO OF E. HIDING TOY TO SEARCH CORRECTLY (GRAPH).IMPORTANTLY, ALSO COULD GENERALIZE NEW UNDERSTANDING TO DIFFERENT SYMBOL THAT HADN’T BEEN TRAINED. NEXT DAY, THEY USED _PHOTOS_ OF THE HIDING PLACES (GRAPH) TO FIND TOY. WITHOUT THIS EXPERIENCE, THE CONTROL GROUP—POORLY BOTH TASKS..Troseth (2003, Developmental Psychology)
11Learning from a Person on a Screen Troseth, Saylor, & Archer (2006, Child Development)Telling on TVTelling in personTASK IS OBJECT RETRIEVALTELLS THE CHILD WHERE TO FIND THE TOY, VERBALLY.ACROSS 2 STUDIES, MANIPULATED WHETHER CHILD MIGHT THINK A PERSON WAS A SOCIAL PARTNER GIVING RELEVANT INFOFinding game: “I hid Piglet under the blanket.”27% correct % correct
1269% correct on finding game Video chat: Person on TV interacted with the child & parent for 5 minutesThen she revealedthe toy’s location69% correct on finding game
13Todders & Video: Summary Children do not expect TV to connect to realityExperience with video related to reality helped them to use information from videoSocial cues missing from video impair learning for very young viewersProviding those cues on video (e.g., contingent responsiveness) helped them learnIE Children don’t learn because they are smart.
14PreschoolSubstantial evidence that children age 3 to 5 learn and get long-term benefits from watching Sesame Street(e.g., Anderson, Huston, Wright, et al., 2001)INCLUDES OUTCOMES LIKE BETTER GPA’S IN HIGH SCHOOL, AFTER CONTROLLING FOR PARENT INVOLVEMENT & EDUCATION, SES, ETC. FOUND BOTH IN MIDDLE CLASS AND IN LOWER SES.WE NOW HAVE EVIDENCE THAT PARENTS WATCHING A VIDEO WITH THEIR CHILDREN CAN IMPROVE LEARNINGBY THIS POINT, CHILDREN TRULY ARE BECOMING SYMBOLIC THINKERS; THEY ARE BEGINNING TO DRAW AND WRITE, TO EXPRESS THE INTENT TO SYMBOLIZE (E.G., SCRIBBLE) & THEN CARRY IT OUT. THEY CAN LEARN FROM VIDEO, PICTURES, AND MODELS, AND ARE ON TO MASTERING CONVENTIONAL SYMBOLS LIKE LETTERS AND NUMBERS.
15Strouse, O’Doherty, & Troseth (2013, Developmental Psychology) Parent Co-viewing3-year-olds4-week studyChildren watch storybooks on videoPre- & post-test of vocabulary (story & general)Post-test story comprehensionSTANDARDIZED EXPRESSIVE VOCABULARY (EOW-PVT)IN PICTURE BOOK STUDIES, DIALOGIC QUESTIONING AFFECTED EXPRESSIVE MORE THAN RECEPTIVE VOCABSTORY-SPECIFIC VOCABULARYPROVIDING THE LABEL FOR AN ITEM FROM A STORY WHEN SHOWN A SCREEN SHOTSTORY COMPREHENSIONStrouse, O’Doherty, & Troseth (2013, Developmental Psychology)
164 ConditionsRegular Video: Parents showed the videos to their children as normalDialogic Questioning: Parents trained to pause the videos/ ask questionsDirected attention: Parents labeled & described rather than questioningDialogic Actress: Person on screen paused & asked questions (easier ones first, more difficult later)
17Dialogic question prompts (simple to harder) Completion – Fill in the blank. e.g., “I’ll huff, I’ll puff, I’ll ____”Recall – Remember something that happened in the storyOpen-ended – Short answer. e.g., “What do you think he’ll do next?”Wh questions – Start with Who, Where, When, Why, or WhatDistancing – Relating story contents to the child’s life -- e.g., “Do you remember when we saw the elephant at the zoo?”PARENTS INSTRUCTED TO START WITH THE SIMPLER WH QUESTIONS, USE MORE COMPLEX LIKE DISTANCING LA AFTER SEVERAL VIEWINGS.
18Results Compared to “Watch as usual” group, Dialogic group improved in: Standardized Expressive Vocabulary (EOW-PVT)Story-Specific VocabularyStory ComprehensionDialogic Actress group learned almost as much about story (including story vocab)Directed Attention group scored in the middle (learned somewhat better than watching alone)children in the Dialogic group didn’t get more or less exposure due to parents’ “buy in” or the time consuming nature of dialogic questioningREMEMBER, THIS IS JUST IN ONE MONTH