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1 Mountains, Witnesses of Global Change Rome 16-17 Nov. 2005 Contribution of the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch(GAW) to High Mountain Observations and ABC.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Mountains, Witnesses of Global Change Rome 16-17 Nov. 2005 Contribution of the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch(GAW) to High Mountain Observations and ABC."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Mountains, Witnesses of Global Change Rome Nov Contribution of the WMO Global Atmosphere Watch(GAW) to High Mountain Observations and ABC Leonard Barrie Chief, Environment Division, WMO Search Engine GAW

2 2 Mountains, Witnesses of Global Change Rome Nov The GAW Mission Systematic Global Monitoring Of Chemical Composition of the Atmosphere. Analysis and Assessment in Support of International Conventions. Development Of Air Pollution and Climate Predictive Capability

3 GAW Monitoring Components SCIENTIFIC ADVISORY GROUPS: AEROSOL OZONE GHGs PRECIP-CHEM UV REACTIVE GASES QUALITY ASSURANCE- SCIENCE ACTIVITY CENTRES WCCs, RCCs, Projects CENTRAL CALIBRATION LABORATORIES (World Reference Standard) GAW STATIONS & GAWSIS Global Regional GAW WORLD DATA CENTRES: OZONE/UV GHGs(& Related Gases) AEROSOL PRECIP-CHEM RADIATION Analysis Twinning Workshops Calibration, Training Site Visits, Comparisons Synthesis IGACO Contributing Networks Satellite Observations CAS/WG Environmental Pollution And Atmospheric Chemistry(EPAC) WMO/GAW Secretariat AREP

4 4 Mountains, Witnesses of Global Change Rome Nov Central Calibration Laboratories {Hosts of WMO World Reference Standards } CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O, CONOAA CMDL USA Total OzoneNOAA CMDL USA Dobson MSC, Canada Brewer MGO, Russia M124 Ozone SondesFZ-Juelich, Germany In Situ OzoneNIST USA Aerosol Optical DepthWORCC, Davos, CH

5 World or Regional Calibration Centres { Linking Observations to World Reference Standards and Ensuring Network Comparability } Total Ozone6 Regional Dobson Centres 1 Regional EU Brewer Centre 1 Brewer travelling standard Ozone SondesFZ-Julich, Germany In Situ O 3, CO, CH 4 EMPA, Switzerland CO 2, CH 4, N 2 ONOAA CMDL USA N 2 O, VOCIMK-IFU Garmisch Germany Aerosol Optical DepthWORCC, Davos, CH Aerosol physical IFT, Leipzig, Germany Precip. ChemistrySUNY Albany USA

6 GAW Station Information System … GAWSIS Online - comprehensive information on all GAW stations Database Search / Update Inventory / Audit (Supported by Switzerland)

7 40 0 South Pole Point Barrow Mauna Loa Alert Pallas-Sodankylä Minamitorishima Kenya Assekrem - Tamanrasset Arembepe Ushuaia Izana Amsterdam Island Cape Grim Cape Point Samoa Ny Ålesund Lauder Mace Head Nov Zugspitze-Hohenpeissenberg Mt Waliguan Neumayer Station Bukit Koto Tabang Jungfraujoch GLOBAL STATIONS IN GAW Danum Valley

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9 GAW GLOBAL TOTAL COLUMN OZONE NETWORK: Stations Submitting Data The symbols represent different instrument types. Compliments of WOUDC, MSC, Toronto {Ed Hare Manager}.

10 Building A Global AOD Network Monitoring Swiss GAW and SAG-Aerosols organize with international co- sponsors: A WMO/GAW Experts Workshop A Global Surface-Based Network for Long Term Observations of Column Aerosol Optical Properties hosted by C. Wehrli, WORCC PMOD March 2004 in Davos Product A Blueprint For Moving Forward Foreword by G. Mueller of MeteoSwiss & Hal Maring of NASA Headquarters

11 The Ground-based Global AOD Network is currently un-coordinated Latitudinal distribution Polar regions: 4 Midlatitude North:50 Tropics:26 Midlatitude South:10 Total 90 Major data gaps Africa, Asia, India, Polar region and Oceans International: AERONET, BSRN, GAWPFR, SKYNET Courtesy of Chris Wehrli Davos AOD Calibration centre National: Australia, China, Finland, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Russia, USA(4)

12 Operational Aerosol Satellites Are Coming: So Far Only Demonstration Missions A best estimate of the global distribution of annual average tropospheric aerosol optical depth (AOD) compiled by combining data from six satellites (operating for limited periods between 1979 and 2004). Observations for a region were selected using ground- based AOD observations as guidance ( courtesy of S. Kinne MPI, Hamburg, Germany ).

13 Mauna Loa Summit Mt.Kenya Assekrem Izana Zugspitze-Hohenpeissenberg Jungfraujoch Mt CimoneSonnblick Mt.Waliguan South Pole

14 40 0 South Pole Mauna Loa March 2005 HIGH ALTITUDE STATIONS IN GAW Summit Mt.Kenya Assekrem Izana Zugspitze-Hohenpeissenberg Jungfraujoch Mt Cimone Sonnblick Mt Waliguan

15 Acknowledgements & Thanks To: Russ Schnell Paolo Bonasoni Emilio Cuevas August Kaiser Wolfgang Fricke Hans Claude Stefan Reimann Jorg Klausen John Burkhart Jack Dibb

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19 Global Halocarbon Trends

20 Mauna Loa Aerosol Lidar

21 Mauna Loa Observatory Atmospheric Transmission

22 Mt. Cimone GAW Research Station Lat N, Lon E, 2165 m asl

23 Measurements carried out at Mt. Cimone IPCC report, 2001 O 3 and CO CNR CO 2 by Italian Air Force Meteorological Service Halocarbons: CFC- 11,CFC- 12, CFC- 113, CFC- 114, CFC-115, H-1211, H- 1301, HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC- 124, HFC- 125, HCFC- 152a, HFC- 134a, HFC- 143a, C 2 F 6, SF 6, CH 3 Cl, CH 3 Br, CHCl 3, CH 2 Cl 2 collaboration : Urbino University - CNR 7 Be, 210 Pb, 222 Rn collaboration: Bologna University - CNR Environmental radiation (cosmic ray) collaboration : Bologna University – INAF - CNR PM10 collab. Bologna Univ.- JRC Ispra - CNR Size aerosol distribution, BC CNR NO 2 and O 3 total column (DOAS) CNR Solar radiation CNR Bioaerosol (pollen and spore) CNR Meteorological parameters CNR and Italian Air Force Meteorological Service

24 24 Mountains, Witnesses of Global Change Rome Nov Particelle / cm 3 July 2003 Coarse particle concentration at Mt. Cimone Station during a Saharan dust transport emphasize by MODIS Satellite image Mt. Cimone MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer July 16, 2003 P. Bonasoni, et al.: Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes. ACP, 4, 1–15, 2004 Saharan dust events and O 3 concentrations Identification of Saharan dust transports: 2003

25 Colombo T. et al., Biospheric influence on CO 2 measurements in Italy. Atm.Env. 34, , 2000

26 26 Mountains, Witnesses of Global Change Rome Nov View of the Po Valley from Mt. Cimone during a summer haze day Influence of Po basin air masses on O 3 at MTC – SUMMER 2003 Selection of transport episodes from Po basin (air mass back-trajectory) P.Bonasoni et al.: Background ozone variations at Mt. Cimone. Atm.Env. 34, N , 2000 Influence of polluted air masses on background O 3 concentration

27 Mt. Cimone monitoring and analysis of stratospheric intrusion events 2) Experimental : Six-year analysis of stratospheric intrusion events at MTC 1) Model evaluation: Time (hours) Stratosphere-to-troposphere transport: A model and method evaluation P.Cristofanelli et al., Model evaluation... JGR, 108(D12), P.Cristofanelli et al., Six-year.. JGR, in press

28 28 Mountains, Witnesses of Global Change Rome Nov CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENTS OF HALOGENATED GREENHOUSE GASES AT JUNGFRAUJOCH, SWITZERLAND AND OTHER EUROPEAN SITES Stefan Reimann Doris Folini Martin Vollmer Empa Swiss Institute of Materials Science and Technology

29 Increasing HFC 134a coolant agent in air conditioners/fridges

30 Merging trajectories and pollution events at Jungfraujoch and Monte Cimone for European source allocation 2-days back trajectories, grid 7x7 km measurements potential source regions of the refrigerant HFC 125

31 European sources of the foam blowing agent HFC 152a as seen from Jungfraujoch 520 t 330 t 4 t 1880 t 460 t 0 t National Communications to UNFCCC Austria Belgium Netherlands Germany France Italy

32 The GAW-DACH Co-operation: Aims, structure and outcome Co-operation between Germany, Austria and Switzerland within the GAW Programme under the guidance of the National Weather Services Since 1996 Aims Common data base Exchange of experiences in measurement techniques - Spatial representativeness of the measured data (NO x, CO, O 3 ) Fricke et al., 2000 (DWD, 211) (German language) - Calculation and interpretation of the air pollution trends (NO x, CO, O 3 ) Trend report (2003) (German lang.)

33 GAW-DACH Potential air pollutant source regions (red) Period: – Ozone (Dec. – Feb.)Ozone (June - Aug.) Measurement sites: Jungfraujoch, Hohenpeißenberg, Zugspitze, Sonnblick, Mt. Krvavec Winter: Ozone from above 3000 m; summer: Ozone from the continent and from the Mediterranean

34 Izaña (IZO) 2400 m a.s.l.

35 A.J. Gomez-Pelaez, R. Ramos, J. Perez-delaPuerta, Methane and Carbon Dioxide Continuous Measurements at Izana GAW Station (Spain), Report of the 13th WMO/IAEA Meeting of Experts on Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques (Boulder, USA, September 2005) GAW Report (WMO) Carbon Dioxide daily night mean mixing ratio at Izana Observatory (INM)

36 A.J. Gomez-Pelaez, R. Ramos, J. Perez-delaPuerta, Methane and Carbon Dioxide Continuous Measurements at Izana GAW Station (Spain), Report of the 13th WMO/IAEA Meeting of Experts on Carbon Dioxide Concentration and Related Tracer Measurement Techniques (Boulder, USA, September 2005) GAW Report (WMO) Methane daily night mean mixing ratio at Izana Observatory (INM)

37 Izaña Total Ozone series TOMS+BREWER Total ozone (DU) over Izaña; Redondas & Cuevas

38 Manuel Gil & Margarita Yela (INTA) Time series of the NO2 total column density over Izaña Observatory

39 -56 0 C

40 South Pole Ozone Hole October Average Ozonesonde Profiles Dobson Total Column Ozone Altitude (km)

41 41 Mountains, Witnesses of Global Change Rome Nov GEOSummit Site of the GISP II project ( ) Currently manned year round by a minimum of four personnel Berthing, office, and laboratory space available and powered continuously Research results led to the Memorandum of Understanding between the US-NSF, Danish Polar Centre, and the Greenland Home Rule Special issue on Air-Snow Exchange Studies at Summit to be published by Atmospheric Environment in º 34 N, 38º 29 W, 3250 m.a.s.l.

42 Greenland Environmental Observatory ~ Summit Cooperating Agencies: GEOSummit Science Coordination Office Jack Dibb John Burkhart Roger Bales

43 7 Be and 210 Pb Radionuclides Summer peak in 7 Be unique at Summit among Arctic sites, indicating significant seasonal influence from the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere 210 Pb concentrations decrease with increasing elevation to Summit. Distinct lack of a winter peak confirms that Arctic Haze rarely extends to 3 km altitude over Summit (Filter samples analyzed by J. E. Dibb at Univ. NH)

44 Year round sampling of trace gases NOAA ESRL/GMD sampling at Summit demonstrates the value of the site as a unique, high latitude, free troposphere observatory. Opposing secular trends in CO 2 and δ 13 C reflect anthropogenic input, antiphase seasonality due to C uptake by terrestrial biosphere. Methane and CO show little recent change, yet clear seasonality. N 2 O and SF 6 (minor GH gases) show anthropogenic increases.

45 Hydrocarbon Seasonality Seasonal cycles of hydrocarbons mainly reflect anthropogenic emissions and a weaker winter OH sink Reproducibility of cycles over 8 years indicates source/sink balance, providing sensitive baseline to detect/quantify future changes (Whole air samples analyzed by the D. R. Blake group at UC Irvine)

46 SOUTH POLE Average Total Column Ozone: SUMMIT Total Column Ozone: 2004 / 2005 NASA TOMS Satellite NOAA CMDL Ozonesondes ANTARCTICA 90 º S GREENLAND 72.6 º N NOAA CMDL Ozonesondes < 220 DU ozone hole conditions Match Campaign time period

47 Carbon Monoxide at the Global GAW Station Mt. Kenya Jörg Klausen 1, Stephan Henne 1, Josiah Kariuki Murageh 2 1 Empa Dübendorf, 2 Kenya Meteorological Department QA/SAC Switzerland Contact: Science Issues Long-range transport (India, Arabia, Southern ocean) Trends in global equatorial background Biomass burning Monsoon patterns dominate general airflow Very low CO due to clean marine air

48 GAW Site and Regional Background Stations

49 49 Mountains, Witnesses of Global Change Rome Nov THANK YOU WMO


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