Presentation on theme: "World Meteorological Organization Working together in weather, climate and water WMO Commission for Atmospheric Sciences: Quality Management Framework."— Presentation transcript:
World Meteorological Organization Working together in weather, climate and water WMO Commission for Atmospheric Sciences: Quality Management Framework in the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme Compiled by Oksana Tarasova, WMOPresented by Rainer Steinbrecher, KIT
Commission for Atmospheric Sciences, 16th Session Antalya, Turkey, November 2013 From final report: The Commission stressed that the quality of observations is directly related to their value for users and in this regard was pleased to note that the GAW quality assurance system has matured. It appreciated the contributions by Members who have set up several important Central Facilities in this system since the previous CAS session. It further noted that keeping up all these central facilities is crucial for the functioning of GAW The Commission agreed that traceable, accurate measurements will be critical for post-Kyoto carbon mitigation actions….. The Commission recommended that all Members ensure that their measurements are traceable to the WMO scale. It further encouraged the Members to participate in the quality assurance activities, including use of measurement guidelines, participation in round-robin exercises and site audits…... + links to QA in 3 other paragraphs in document 6.2
What is the GAW Programme? GAW is a partnership involving contributors from 100 countries. GAW implements end-to-end approach (from observations through research to delivered products and services) Observations of atmospheric chemical composition and related physical parameters constitute important part of the programme GAW observations can be used for different applications, including climate studies, air quality forecasting, NWP etc. GAW Strategy and its implementation are presented in the GAW Strategic Plan : and its Addendum
GAW focal areas Stratospheric Ozone and vertical ozone distribution Greenhouse Gases (CO 2 and its isotopes, CH 4 and its isotopes, N 2 O, SF 6, CFCs, H 2 ) Reactive Gases (O 3, CO, VOC, NO x, SO 2 ) Precipitation Chemistry Aerosols (chemical and physical properties, AOD) UV Radiation
Observations in GAW GAW strives to implement “integrated” observing system including ground-based observations and satellite remote sensing integrated through models Surface-based in situ and remote sensing observations are the backbone of the GAW network. There are Global and Regional GAW stations and stations working within contributing networks. Currently GAW coordinates activities and data from 29 Global stations, 632 Regional stations, and 251 Contributing stations (http://gaw.empa.ch/gawsis/)
Network harmonization and Data Quality Objectives The primary objectives of the GAW Quality Management Framework (QMF) are to ensure that the data in the World Data Centers, which are used in particular in support of decision making, are consistent, of known and adequate quality, supported by comprehensive metadata, and sufficiently complete to describe global atmospheric states with respect to spatial and temporal distribution. There is no central GAW database where requirements to the network specification (x, y, z) are stored. The only source of spatial requirements is IGACO strategy. These requirements are currently reflected in the OSCAR database “Numeric” requirements to the quality of data (uncertainty/compatibility, delivery time) are included in the measurement guidelines for individual parameters in the form of Data Quality Objectives (relevant to each individual station or network compatibility) The set of GAW observations application areas is to be clarified and approved by CAS this year and requirements are to be reviewed by SAG in a view of those applications.
Challenges for QMF -Different parameters -Different platforms -Different capacity of the Members -Different availability of resources - Global coverage -Strict requirement to the quality of observations -Worldwide use of the same standards -Harmonized observation methods
QMF elements QMF documentation -programme protocols and procedures (e.g. for facilities/ stations/ networks) - established agreements with partners - reporting Requirements and technical guidelines -Data Quality Objectives - station requirements - facilities requirements - MG/SOPs Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) -QA/QC at the stations (calibrations, equipment service, data control, log books etc) - Central Facilities activities (intercomparisons, audits etc) - data and metadata control at Data Centers - activities of the supporting expert groups Personnel development -Specialized training -Stations twinning -Technical workshops
QMF principles Full support of the GCOS Climate Monitoring Principles Network-wide use of only one reference standard or scale (primary standard). In consequence, there is only one institution that is responsible for this standard. Full traceability to the primary standard of all measurements made by Global, Regional and Contributing GAW stations. The definition of data quality objectives (DQOs). Establishment of guidelines on how to meet these quality targets, i.e., harmonized measurement techniques based on Measurement Guidelines (MGs) and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Establishment of MGs or SOPs for these measurements. Use of detailed log books for each parameter containing comprehensive meta information related to the measurements, maintenance, and 'internal' calibrations. Regular independent assessments (system and performance audits). Timely submission of data and associated metadata to the responsible World Data Centre as a means of permitting independent review of data by a wider community.
1. The station location is chosen such that, for the variables measured, it is regionally representative and is normally free of the influence of significant local pollution sources. 2. There are adequate power, air conditioning, communication and building facilities to sustain long term observations with greater than 90% data capture (i.e. <10% missing data). 3. The technical support provided is trained in the operation of the equipment. 4. There is a commitment by the responsible agency to long term observations of at least one of the GAW variables in the GAW focal areas (ozone, aerosols, greenhouse gases, reactive gases, UV radiation, precipitation chemistry). 5. The GAW observation made is of known quality and linked to the GAW Primary Standard. 6. The data and associated metadata are submitted to one of the GAW World Data Centres no later than one year after the observation is made. Changes of metadata including instrumentation, traceability, observation procedures, are reported to the responsible WDC in a timely manner. 7. If required, data are submitted to a designated data distribution system in near-real-time. 8. Standard meteorological in situ observations, necessary for the accurate determination and interpretation of the GAW variables, are made with known accuracy and precision. 9. The station characteristics and observational programme are updated in the GAW Station Information System (GAWSIS) on a regular basis. 10. A station logbook (i.e. record of observations made and activities that may affect observations) is maintained and is used in the data validation process. General requirements to GAW stations
In addition to the characteristics of Regional or Contributing stations, a GAW Global station should fulfill the following additional requirements, namely 11. Measure variables in at least three of the six GAW focal areas. 12. Have a strong scientific supporting programme with appropriate data analysis and interpretation within the country and, if possible, the support of more than one agency. 13. Make measurements of other atmospheric variables important to weather and climate including upper air radio sondes at the site or in the region. 14. Provide a facility at which intensive campaign research can augment the long term routine GAW observations and where testing and development of new GAW methods can be undertaken. Requirements to GAW Global stations
How does GAW work with contributing networks GAW contributing networks where agreement is signed: AD-Net, ALINE, EARLINET (these 3 are parts of GALION) IMPROVE TCCON Agreement with contributing network allows networks: -Use network standard for calibration (which must me traceable to WMO primary standard) -Use network procedures for network harmonization -Keep data in the network data center, ensuring that link to the data is provided in the WMO/GAW Data Centers -Information about contributing stations must be made available in GAWSIS
Central Facilities Five types of central facilities: Central Calibration Laboratories (CCLs) Quality Assurance/Science Activity Centres (QA/SACs) World Calibration Centres (WCCs) Regional Calibration Centres (RCCs) World Data Centres (WDCs)
GAW QMF status: 1. Documentation -Most of the internal programme protocols and procedures are laid out in the GSP (terms or references for expert groups and Central Facilities, expert groups assignment) and its Addendum (procedures for stations joining the programme and Central Facilities assignment) - some agreements with CF are in place, stations obtain “assignment letter” - agreement with the networks are under development - Reporting procedures are to be established
GAW QMF status: 2. Requirements - Stations requirements are listed in GSP - Central Facilities requirements are listed in GSP Addendum - DQOs are reviewed by SAGs, and by community at expert meetings. Best practices to reach DQOs are described in Measurement Guidelines (MGs) and Standard Operating Procedures ( SOPs) - For most of GAW parameters MGs and SOPs are developed and evaluated/updated with a development of the observational methods
Conceptual framework of the GAW QA/QC
GAW Central Facilities (in Addendum) 17
Evaluation of the quality of observations oActivities of the Central Facilities (stations audits, regional and global comparison exercisers) oRecommendations on Measurement Techniques (Measurement Guidelines and Standard Operating Procedures) oStations twinning oExpert meetings oTraining of station personnel Network performance in general is discussed at GAW Symposiums, at the meetings of Scientific Advisory Groups and Scientific Steering Committee
GAW QMF status: 4. Personnel development Training The GAW Training and Education Centre (GAWTEC) since 2001 EMPA conducts training for operators of stations Mt. Kenya (Kenya), Bukit Koto Tabang (Indonesia), Assekrem (Algeria), Shangdian’zi (China) NCAR (Boulder) has provided training for Mt. Kenya operators specifically for their CO2 analyzer installed in 2008 Training traditionally takes place at the instruments comparison campaigns (Brewers comparisons, Dobson comparisons, surface ozone gas analyzers comparison etc.) Twinning Empa - Assekrem (Algeria), Bukit Koto Tabang (Indonesia) and Mt. Kenya (Kenya) The Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, (IMK-IFU) - Cape Point (South Africa). NOAA (ESRL) - Ushuaia (HATS group), Tiksi (Russia) and a number of others Expert meetings
Training WMO The GAW Training and Education Centre, GAWTEC, hosted by Germany, gives two two-week courses annually for station personnel since 2001
Goals of QMF development (1) Define a quality management system for GAW to meet the requirements of the WMO Quality Management Framework and to consider the development of joint ISO/WMO technical standards. Complete the GAW organizational structure (i.e., SAGs, Central Facilities) and harmonise the GAW QA procedures across parameters and station types. Increase the frequency of instrument calibrations and inter-comparisons at Global stations and explore other means of ensuring the traceability to the WMO primary standard of measurements made at Regional and Contributing stations.
Goals of QAF development (2) Build alliances between and among Global and Regional stations (scientific and technical co-operation, twinning), and twinning between individuals (scientists, station personnel). Develop and implement methods for ensuring the traceability of remote sensing equipment, both ground- and satellite-based, to the WMO primary standard. Continue to improve the quality and interoperability of data sets residing at the GAW World Data Centers. Define and harmonize the core and extended metadata set for GAW observations.
Thank you for your attention! Compiled by Oksana Tarasova, WMOPresented by Rainer Steinbrecher, KIT