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AREP GAW WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme Liisa Jalkanen, Chief Atmospheric Environment Research (AER) Division WMO Secretariat.

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Presentation on theme: "AREP GAW WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme Liisa Jalkanen, Chief Atmospheric Environment Research (AER) Division WMO Secretariat."— Presentation transcript:

1 AREP GAW WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Programme Liisa Jalkanen, Chief Atmospheric Environment Research (AER) Division WMO Secretariat

2 AREP GAW World Meteorological Organization Independent technical UN agency 187 Members manage through WMO Congress and Executive Council Secretariat in Geneva (staff 290) Technical Departments Observing and Information Systems (OBS) Climate and Water (CLW) Weather and Disaster Risk Reduction Services (WDS) Research (RES) Atmospheric Research and Environment Branch (ARE) Atmospheric Environment Research Division (AER) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW)

3 AREP GAW What is GAW? WMO/GAW was established 1989 by merging GO 3 OS and BAPMoN, after the signing of the Montreal Protocol in 1987 and establishment of IPCC by WMO and UNEP in 1988. GAW focuses on global long-term networks for GHGs, ozone, UV, aerosols, selected reactive gases, and precipitation chemistry. GAW is a partnership involving contributors from 80 countries. GAW is coordinated by the Atmospheric Environment Research Division (AER) of WMO/RES. Currently GAW coordinates activities and data from 24 Global stations, 200 Regional stations, and 19 Contributing stations

4 AREP GAW New GAW Strategic Plan (GSP) For years 2008 – 2015 Published summer 2007

5 AREP GAW MONITORING THEMES Stratospheric Ozone Tropospheric Ozone Greenhouse Gases (CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O, CFCs,) Reactive Gases (CO, VOC, NO y, SO 2 ) Precipitation Chemistry Aerosols (chemical, physical, AOD) UV Radiation (Natural Radionuclides, Rn 222, Be 7, 14 CO)

6 AREP GAW Components of the GAW Programme

7 AREP GAW QA/QC in GAW Scientific Advisory Groups (SAGs) Quality Assurance/Science Activity Centres (QA/SACs) World Calibration Centres (WCCs) World Data Centres (WDCs) GAW stations: primary responsibility for generated data Instrument calibrations Instrument intercomparisons Station audits Laboratory comparisons Training

8 AREP GAW Central Calibration Laboratories {Hosts of WMO World Reference Standards } CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O, CONOAA CMDL USA Total OzoneNOAA CMDL USA Dobson MSC, Canada Brewer MGO, Russia M124 Ozone SondesFZ-Juelich, Germany In Situ OzoneNIST USA Aerosol Optical DepthWORCC, Davos, CH

9 World or Regional Calibration Centres { Linking Observations to World Reference Standards and Ensuring Network Comparability } Total Ozone6 Regional Dobson Centres 1 Regional EU Brewer Centre 1 Brewer travelling standard Ozone SondesFZ-Julich, Germany In Situ O 3, CO, CH 4 EMPA, Switzerland CO 2, CH 4, N 2 ONOAA CMDL USA N 2 O, VOCIMK-IFU Garmisch Germany Aerosol Optical DepthWORCC, Davos, CH Aerosol physical IFT, Leipzig, Germany Precip. ChemistrySUNY Albany USA

10 AREP GAW GAW Station Information System … GAWSIS Online - comprehensive information on all GAW stations Database Search / Update Inventory / Audit (Supported by Switzerland)

11 40 0 South Pole Point Barrow Mauna Loa Alert Pallas-Sodankylä Minamitorishima Kenya Assekrem - Tamanrasset Arembepe Ushuaia Izana Amsterdam Island Cape Grim Cape Point Samoa Ny Ålesund Lauder Mace Head 40 80 40 0 80 160800 160 Nov. 2005 Zugspitze-Hohenpeissenberg Mt Waliguan Neumayer Station Bukit Koto Tabang Jungfraujoch GLOBAL STATIONS IN GAW Danum Valley

12 AREP GAW Data Application Data analysis and distribution GAWSIS, WDCs, Stations Assessments and data application Conventions: Vienna, UNFCC, LRTAP Ozone assessments with UNEP, NOAA, EU, NASA Antarctic ozone hole bulletin Total ozone maps over Northern Hemisphere Greenhouse gas bulletins, IPCC Use in model validation Integration of GAW data with satellite observations Workshops on data analysis and interpretation Studies, research projects National, regional and global studies Attract research projects to GAW stations

13 Annual Greenhouse Gas Bulletins GAW Global CO 2 network Greenhouse gas calibrations Carbon Cycle Greenhouse Group (CCGG) at NOAA CMDL WMO Central CO 2 Laboratory (CCL) Activities for over 20 years, WMO CO 2 Experts meetings Number of CO 2 calibrations that differ from NOAA by: 1991-1992 1995-1997 1999-2000 < 0.10 ppm 13 32 44 > 0.25 20 5 5

14 AREP GAW WMO Antarctic Ozone Bulletins An example of a need for integrated products in near-real time Every Two Weeks Aug to Nov + Summary in Dec/Jan

15 GAW Urban Research Meteorology and Environment GURME project

16 AREP GAW UV activities

17 AREP GAW SAG-UV Ann Webb (Chair) Susana Diaz Vitali Fioletov Jay Herman Serm Janjai Berit Kjeldstad Gunther Seckmeyer Betsy Weatherhead Liisa Jalkanen (WMO) Next meeting: August 2008 at IRS2008 Last meetings: Toronto, Oct. 2005 Buenos Aires, Nov. 2003

18 AREP GAW Measurements Spectral (< 1 nm) Multifilter (~ 10 nm) Broadband (usually erythemally weighted) Within each instrument class there are different makes and models with differing characteristics

19 AREP GAW Data Data are submitted to WOUDC in Toronto At present the database contains predominantly spectral data, much of it from Brewer spectrometers There are many UV sites that are not directly associated with GAW and do not submit data to WOUDC Much European data in EUVDB at FMI

20 AREP GAW Current Products and Services Guideline documents for different types of UV instruments and for QA/QC of measurements Data sets provided through WOUDC Provision of erythemally effective UV, i.e., the UV Index Provision of UV Index forecasts for the public by NMHSs Calibration services for North America and Europe Instrument inter-comparisons for the quality and harmonization of measurements. Future Products and Services In addition to above Improved data availability to users especially due to more available broadband data sets Improved accessibility of satellite data for any specified site Globally linked calibration services in different regions SOPs for all instrument types.

21 AREP GAW Ozone activities

22 AREP GAW Some ozone measurements history Regular measurements for total ozone started in 1926 when 6 Dobson spectrophotometers were deployed around the world In conjunction with the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957, WMO assumed responsibility for the establishment of the Global Ozone Observing System (GO 3 OS) network, standard procedures were adopted for uniform total ozone measurements In 1989 GO 3 OS merged together with BaPMon to form GAW

23 GAW GLOBAL TOTAL COLUMN OZONE NETWORK: 2001- 2004 Stations Submitting Data The symbols represent different instrument types. Compliments of WOUDC, MSC, Toronto {Ed Hare Manager}.

24 GAW GLOBAL OZONE SONDE NETWORK: 2001- 2004 Stations Submitting Data To WOUDC The red triangles represent sites of GAW Contributing partner NASA/SHADOZ Compliments of WOUDC, MSC, Toronto {Ed Hare Manager}.

25 AREP GAW WMO GAW Ozone SAG Johannes Stähelin, Chair Frank Baier Robert Evans Jack Fishman Sophie Godin-Beekmann Edward Hare Ulf Köhler Tom McElroy Koji Miyagawa Alberto Redondas Marrero Herman Smit Richard Stolarski René Stübi Johanna Tamminen Karel Vanicek Mark Weber Geir Braathen, WMO

26 AREP GAW Goal GAW stratospheric total ozone: Measurement of changes with sufficient precision to determine the effects of human activity, which involves Maintaining networks of high quality total ozone measurements based on Dobson and Brewer spectrophotometers with transparent calibration histories Making best use of this information for validation of satellite ozone observations Providing quality control of ground stations by comparison with long-term satellite data records (data gaps, correction of jumps, etc.) Documenting the data quality of satellite and ground-based data records for the users Improving the characterization of the small but distinct differences between Dobson and Brewer total ozone measurements and between different UV measuring satellite instruments Submitting Level 0 data and associated calibration information to the WOUDC Conduct a pilot project for ozone involving NRT exchange of data.

27 AREP GAW Goals GAW Ozone Profile Measurements Operate a world wide network of ozone sonde stations to provide data of known quality according to GAW QA/QC guidelines Document adequately important properties and data quality of ozone sonde data deposited at WOUDC, including the characterization of individual series in a simple way for the users by data quality indicators Operate a well maintained network of stations providing Umkehr measurements from Dobson and Brewer instruments Process routinely Umkehr measurements of Dobson and Brewer instruments deposited at WOUDC by a well tested retrieval algorithm Continue cooperative relationships with NDACC, SHADOZ and NILU to integrate lidar and microwave measurements into a global (possibly virtual) database of ground-based vertical ozone profile data sets.

28 AREP GAW Demand for high quality (total) ozone observations: (i) Ozone trends caused by ozone depleting substances (CFCs); (ii) validation of satellite measurements.

29 AREP GAW Relative differences between the Dobson instruments and compared station instruments during the initial calibrations of the intercomparisons since 1969 (from Koehler et al., 2005).

30 AREP GAW Brewer instrument (basically same design as Dobson instrument but completely automated) commercially available since middle of 1980s (Arosa, Switzerland, operated by MeteoSwiss) D101 installed in 1968 and D62 in 1992 B40 installed in 1992, B72 in 1994 and B156 in 1998

31 AREP GAW Stability of the triad of Brewer instruments defining the primary Brewer total ozone scale operated at MSC in Toronto (from Fioletov et al., 2005), calibrated by Langley plot calibration at Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) European calibration center (Meteorological Inst. Spain (Instituto Nacional de Meteorologica)): triad of Brewer instruments operated in Izana (Tenerife), also performing Langley plot calibration

32 AREP GAW However: The quality of measurements at several stations archived at WOUDC needs improvement Action: Systematic comparison of ground-based Dobson and Brewer data with ozone satellite measurements to (i)(officially) identify suspicious (periods) of measurements; (ii)inform these stations and ask for revisions based on advice of experts; (iii)(improve) public documentation of intercomparison results at WOUDC; (iv)flagging of suspicious data (periods) at WOUDC Only limited accuracy when transferring calibration scale from one to another instrument (± 0.5 %).

33 Observations: All Sources Global Products Geir Braathen Integrated Global Ozone Observations: IGACO-Ozone World Integrated Data Archive System: Includes WOUDC Reanalysis Assimilation of Real-Time Data By Forecast Models GAW Calibration & Quality Assurance Data Uses/Applications 1. Public UV Warnings 2. Public Ozone Bulletins 3. Research 4. Scientific Assessments 5. Forecasts of Ozone Depletion 6. Improved Weather Forecast Aircraft: GAW & MOZAIC Surface-based: GAW Satellite: WMO Space Programme WMO Real-Time Data Distribution: Weather Information System (WIS)

34 AREP GAW Collaboration is critical for success!

35 AREP GAW Extra slides

36 AREP GAW Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Systematic monitoring of atmospheric chemical and physical parameters globally Analysis and assessment Development of predictive capability


38 AREP GAW Role of SAG-ozone Advice for reliable ground based ozone measurements of known data quality to be published in WOUDC (Toronto, Canada) (homework). Methods - SOPs, DQOs, Intercomparisons with reference instruments (similar to audits), documentation (WOUDC), recomendations New Challenge: Implementation of IGACO-O 3 /UV - integration of satellite and regular air craft measurements, data assimilation - interactions with science community

39 AREP GAW Future priorities Scientific questions Ozone at UT/LS (strong greenhouse gas) Total ozone measurements at polar sites Controversy regarding seasonal variation in total ozone: Dobson similar to TOMS, Brewer similar to GOME and SCHIAMACHY (temperature dependence of ozone cross sections) Ozone sonde measurements: Normalization by total ozone, background current Other activities Closer colaboration with NDACC and others: different groups without interactions: for total ozone (UV/VIS and DOAS in NDACC), ozone sondes (NDACC, SHADOZ), upper stratosphere (Umkehr, microwave, LIDAR, FTIR) NRT delivery Implementation of IGACO-O 3 /UV (in addition to groundbased measurements: satellite, regular aircraft, data assimilation, numerical simulations) - Interactions with science community via IGACO-O 3 /UV




43 AREP GAW GAW Central Facilities VariableQA/SAC Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) Host of Primary Standard World Calibration Centre (WCC) Regional Calibration Centre (RCC) World Data Centre (WDC) CO 2 JMA (A/O)ESRL JMA CH 4 Empa (Am, E/A) JMA (A/O) ESRL Empa (Am, E/A) JMA (A/O) JMA N2ON2OUBAESRLIMK-IFUJMA CFCsJMA Total OzoneJMA (A/O) ESRL 1, Environment Canada 2 BoM 1, ESRL 1, IZO 2 JMA 1, MOHp 1, MGO 3, OCBA 1, SAWB 1, SOO-HK 1 Environment Canada 5, DLR 6 Ozone SondesFZ-Jülich Environment Canada Surface OzoneEmpaNISTEmpa OCBA, SOO-HK JMA Precipitation Chemistry ASRC-SUNYISWSASRC-SUNY COEmpaESRLEmpaJMA VOCUBAIMK-IFUJMA SO 2 JMA NO x JMA Aerosol IfT (Physical Properties) JRC 5, DLR 6 Optical DepthPMOD/WRC 4 PMOD/WRCJRC UV Radiation ESRL (Am) Environment Canada Solar RadiationPMOD/WRC MGO

44 GHGs Combining Air Chemistry, Meteorology and Climate Research Aerosols & Dust Severe Storms Process Studies, Modelling Observations O3O3 Air Pollution Climate Change & Prediction Weather Prediction

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