Student Log StationDate Completed Reflection 1. Narrative vs. Expository 2.Editing 3.Revision 4.Spelling 5. Verb Tense 6.Punctuation 7. Thesis / Controlling Idea 8. Hooks & Leads 9. Body Paragraphs 10. Comma vs. Semicolon Name:________________________
Narrative or Expository? Narrative – An essay that tells a story. A Personal Narrative relates a personal story.. Something that the writer has experienced. Expository – Written to explain. Uses facts.. May compare and contrast.
Writing Prompts: NarrativeExpository Think about a day when nothing went right. Write about this bad experience. If you could choose any animal to have as a pet, what would you choose and why? Your family celebrates special events such as birthdays, holidays, or other special times. Choose one family event and write about it. Your cousin is moving to town. Write a paper explaining why your town is such a wonderful place to live. Think about a time when you were surprised about something that happened to you. Write about this event. Friends are important, but everyone has a different opinion about what makes a good friend. Explain what, in your opinion makes a good friend. Pretend you were selected to receive a special award. Write the article that would be in the newspaper to announce your award. Explain why it is important to learn to read. Because you have been sick, out of town, or working on other homework, you didn't have as much time to study for an important test as you needed. Think of a specific test that you took that you felt unprepared for and narrate the events. Your paper should help readers understand what it felt like to be unprepared. As a student familiar with this school, explain the procedure for fire drills to a new student. Tell about a time when you were embarrassed.Everyone has jobs or chores. Explain why you do one of your jobs or chores. Write about an hour that you would like to live over again.Describe an experiment to be conducted on board the space shuttle. Recall a time when you felt really disappointed about something. Tell about this experience. Write a letter to an inhabitant of another planet explaining basic things on Planet Earth. Think about a time when you felt important. Tell about it.Recall a time when you felt really disappointed about something. Explain this experience. Tell about a time when you felt proud.Describe your favorite or least favorite meal.
Assignments Writing Coach Book: Page 45 – Read Jobs for Kids – Answer questions 1 & 2 Pages 174 & 175 – Read Looking for a Pet? Look No Further Than Maiden Point Shelter Complete questions 1-5 on the sides of the pages. Pages Read The Pigman & Me & all information on page 82. Complete the grammar Mini-Lesson: Consistent Tenses
Writing Process Wheel
Assignments Writing Coach Book: Pages 40 & 41 – Read End Game Fails to Thrill – Both copies. Make notes of changes and Improvements. Pages 78 & 79 – Read Alone in the Spotlight – Both copies. Make notes of changes and Improvements. Practice rewriting the sample passage: Plumbers
Plumbers (1) Glub, glub! (2) Uh oh, what does that sound mean? (3) No, its not the sound of your pet telling you its hungry. (4) It means it is time to call a plumber. (5) The pipe is stop up and water is unable to pass through. (6) What will a plumber do to help? (7) With the right tools, a plumber will clean out the pipe and get the water to run through free and clear. (8) A plumber can do that and so much more in a new or current house. (9) A plumber puts plumbing in it. (10) This includes putting in pipes to bring in and take out water. (11) A plumber also puts in bathtubs, sinks, faucets, water heaters, air conditioners, and room heaters. (12) There are many parts of a house that a plumber handles as part of the job. (13) A plumbers day was full of many different tasks. (14) A plumber needs to be able to solve problems. (15) A plumber gets to explain what is needed to take care of any problem. (16) Plumbers also have to be able to lift and move heavy objects. (17) Pianos are especially heavy and hard to move. (18) Plumbers use a lot of different kinds of tools. (19) They need to know about these to do their job well. (20) They also have to know what kinds of plumbing work needs to be done in buildings. (21) The work of a plumber takes a long time to learn. (22) Someone who wants to be a new plumber starts out working with an experienced plumber. (23) This person is called a master plumber. ( 24) An learning plumber usually works about five years with a master plumber. (25) The new plumber learns right on the job. (26) The new plumber learns the skills to be a good plumber. (27) They earn money as they learn. (28) Many take classes to learn about plumbing. (29) The new plumber must take a test. (30) Then the new plumber is able to start a business. (31) The new plumber may go to work for a plumbing company. (32) Plumbers have tools that they use in their job. (33) One of their busyest tools is the adjustable wrench. (34) Its jaws can be made bigger or smaller to fit different sizes of pipes. (35) Plumbers need to cut pipes so they use a pipe cutter. (36) Pipes are joined together with a propane torch. (37) Drains are cleared with a long coiled wire called a snake. (38) Some plumbers use a small video camera that can be lowered or pushed into drains or pipes to see what is causing a problem inside. (39) Then the plumber can decide the best way to take care of the problem. (40) Plumbers work on homes, stores, apartment buildings, factories, tall skyscrapers, and construction sites. (41) They help keep the water supply safe and healthy. (42) Plumbers have many tools. Practice
Spelling Commonly Misspelled Words
Commonly Misspelled Words for Middle School…. OUR/ARE
Choose 15 of the words on the list and write a sentence with each word. The word MUST be used correctly! Activity #1
Activity #2 Complete each sentence with the correct word: 1._______________ mom called my mom this morning. 2.I know that you are going to Florida for vacation next summer, and I want to go ___________. 3.______________ dog is a German Shepard. 4.______________ going to be very hot today. 5.Since our television is broken, we will need to ______________ a new one. 6.I am an only child; I have ______________ siblings. 7.There are _____________ people who live in Texas. 8._____________ you going to the dance next weekend? 9.I do not ______________ who to talk to about this. 10.The cabin is in the woods ____________ the lake. 11.____________ mother is my cat. 12.____________ going to have a hard time when Mom is out of town. 13.I love to eat _______________. 14.When your dad gets home, ______________ going to be in so much trouble! 15.______________house is on the corner of my street.
Answers for Activity #2 Complete each sentence with the correct word: 1._Your______________ mom called my mom this morning. 2.I know that you are going to Florida for vacation next summer, and I want to go _too__________. 3._Our_____________ dog is a German Shepard. 4.__Its____________ going to be very hot today. 5.Since our television is broken, we will need to _____buy_________ a new one. 6.I am an only child; I have __no____________ siblings. 7.There are ___a lot__________ of people who live in Texas. 8.___Are__________ you going to the dance next weekend? 9.I do not __know____________ who to talk to about this. 10.The cabin is in the woods ___by_________ the lake. 11.__Its__________ mother is my cat. 12.___Theyre_____ going to have a hard time when Mom is out of town. 13.I love to eat __there_____________. 14.When your dad gets home, _youre__ going to be in so much trouble! 15.__Their____________house is on the corner of my street.
Simple Present: They walk Present Perfect: They have walked Simple Past: They walked Past Perfect: They had walked Future: They will walk Future Perfect: They will have walked Present Perfect The present perfect consists of a past participle (the third principal part) with "has" or "have." It designates action which began in the past but which continues into the present or the effect of which still continues. 1. Betty taught for ten years. (simple past) 2. Betty has taught for ten years. (present perfect) Past Perfect The past perfect tense designates action in the past just as simple past does, but the action of the past perfect is action completed in the past before another action. 1. John raised vegetables and later sold them. (past) 2. John sold vegetables that he had raised. (past perfect) Future Perfect The future perfect tense designates action that will have been completed at a specified time in the future. 1. Saturday I will finish my housework. (simple future) 2. By Saturday noon, I will have finished my housework. (future perfect) Review 1. Judy saved thirty dollars. (past) 2. Judy will save thirty dollars. (future) 3. Judy has saved thirty dollars. (present perfect) 4. Judy had saved thirty dollars by the end of last month. (past perfect) 5. Judy will have saved thirty dollars by the end of this month. (future perfect) Verb Tenses
Exercises Writing Coach Book: Page 466 – Read and review Using Consistent Tenses Page 467 – Practice 20.4Q 1-10 Practice 20.4 R Even
Punctuation MarkUseExample. Period ? Question Mark ! Exclamation Mark,Comma : Colon ; Semicolon Quotation Marks _______________ (underline) Italics -Hyphen Apostrophe ( ) Parenthesis [ ] Brackets … Ellipses - Dashes Types of Punctuation Use your Writing Coach book: pages
Thesis / Controlling Idea Thesis is used in a narrative. Controlling Idea is used in an expository.
A Thesis Statement: Explains the purpose of the project Identifies the main points to be addressed Provides a brief summary of the project Explains what evidence will support the thesis statement A thesis statement sets limits to the investigation and suggests the kinds of information you will look for when you begin your research. A tentative thesis statement is written before searching for information. As you delve deeper into your topic, you may change your thesis statement to reflect new insights or different approaches. Steps for students: Select and limit your topic Ask questions related to the purpose for researching this topic. What do I want to show in my presentation? What information do I want to give my audience? Write a tentative thesis statement that states what the research will show and give some indication of how the topic will be approached. Evaluate the tentative thesis statement for clarity and directness. Refer to this statement when evaluating sources information and making decisions concerning what to include or exclude. Keep referring to your thesis statement. You may need to revise your thesis statement while gathering information and even when you are writing your project. For a Narrative
To create your controlling idea…
Exercises Choose 2 of the writing prompts below. One of your choices must be Narrative and the other will be Expository. With each prompt: Determine if it is narrative or expository Brainstorm Create an outline Develop 1 Thesis and 1 Controlling Idea Your family celebrates special events such as birthdays, holidays, or other special times. Choose one family event and write about it. Your cousin is moving to tow. Write a paper explaining why your town is such a wonderful place to live. Think about a time when you were surprised about something that happened to you. Write about this event. Friends are important, but everyone has a different opinion about what makes a good friend. Explain what, in your opinion makes a good friend. Pretend you were selected to receive a special award. Write the article that would be in the newspaper to announce your award. Explain why it is important to learn to read.
Hooks & Introductions
In a narrative essay, this is called a hook. In an expository, it is a lead Lead Starters
Hook Starters Technique one: Start with a short (four- or five-word maximum), effective sentence: Her hair shone gold. Technique two: Start with an interesting metaphor or simile: The wolf was a tornado, changing the lives of all who crossed his path. Technique three: Start with an interesting question for the reader to ponder: Who could have thought that a simple trip to Grandmas house could end in tragedy? Technique four: Start with a subordinate clause or other complex sentence form: Though the road to Grandmas house was spooky, Red skipped along with an air of confidence. Technique five: Start with a riddle: Who has big eyes, big teeth and is dressed in Grandmas clothes? Yes, you guessed it, the Big Bad Wolf. Technique six: Fill in these blanks: ___ was the kind of ___ who/that ___ Little Red was the kind of girl who thought wolves would never bother her. Technique seven: Capture a feeling or emotion: You might be surprised to learn that a little girl couldnt recognize her own grandmother. Technique eight: Use a string of adjectives: Tall, dark, and with an air of confidence, the woodsman entered the house.
Exercises: Using the chart of leads, create one of each type for the following prompt: (You will have a total of 5) Describe your favorite or least favorite meal. Using the chart of hooks, create one of each type for the following prompt: (You will have a total of 8) Write about an hour that you would like to live over again.
Body paragraphs are the meat of your essay, and as such are the most important component of your essay. In the body paragraphs, you will expand upon and provide support for the theme you introduced in the first paragraph and will provide the details that move that theme forward. A two page essay will typically contain 2-4 body paragraphs. Each paragraph contains: A topic sentence that expands your theme and makes a transition from the previous paragraph Development of ideas that support your essay's theme An ending sentence that wraps up the paragraph and helps to transition into the next paragraph Body Paragraph
Sample Body Paragraph
Exercise Create a body paragraph about each of the following topics: Living in Texas Being a Willow Wood Junior High Student Playing a sport (you choose which one) or taking part in an elective class
Exercises Use the appropriate rubric to rate each of the essays. You must score for each trait and get an overall score. Record these scores on paper.
Exercises Complete each of the practice STAAR passages. Take your time. Read carefully. Make sure that you understand what each question is asking. Prove any answer that can be proven.
Commas vs. Semicolons Hyphens, clauses, commas after introductory phrases.
Comma (,) Use a comma after the first independent clause when you link two independent clauses with one of the following coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. For example: I am going home, and I intend to stay there. It rained heavily during the afternoon, but we managed to have our picnic anyway. They couldn't make it to the summit and back before dark, so they decided to camp for the night. Comma Rules
Semicolon (;) Use a semicolon when you link two independent clauses with no connecting words. For example: I am going home; I intend to stay there. It rained heavily during the afternoon; we managed to have our picnic anyway. They couldn't make it to the summit and back before dark; they decided to camp for the night. You can also use a semicolon when you join two independent clauses together with one of the following conjunctive adverbs (adverbs that join independent clauses): however, moreover, therefore, consequently, otherwise, nevertheless, thus, etc. For example: I am going home; moreover, I intend to stay there. It rained heavily during the afternoon; however, we managed to have our picnic anyway. They couldn't make it to the summit and back before dark; therefore, they decided to camp for the night. Semicolon Rules
Exercises Writing Coach Book – Page 563 – Read & Review Page 558 – Read & Review, Page 559 – Practice 25.2 A (Evens), Practice 25.2B (Odds) Page 560 – 25.2 C (1-5), 25.2 D (16-20) Page 274 – Read & Review Page 285 – Read & Review Pages – Read & Review Pages – Read & Review Page 574 – Practice 25.3A & 25.3B (Evens) Page 575 – Practice 25.3C & 25.3D (Odds)
Stations Continued…. Set 2: 1-8
Word Choice Dictionary & Thesaurus Use #1
Original Paragraph When I started thinking about getting a new job, I was completely clueless. I knew I wanted to do something really cool, but I was lost about what might fit the bill. Revised Paragraph When I started thinking about getting a new job, I was overwhelmed by my options and unsure of what to choose. While I knew I wanted to do something interesting, I was uncertain of what that might be. Word Choice
Activity #1 Improve the following sentences by choosing clearer, more vivid words: You may want to use a dictionary or thesaurus…. 1.She likes it a lot. 2.He was going to the game at the center and wanted to take her with him. 3.My favorite food is pizza because it is super yummy. 4.Take me there when you go. 5.The dog is funny when he begs for food. 6.Students in high school are more free than students in junior high. 7.It is really weird to love things that scare you. 8.People are funny! 9.I like to ride my bike to his house sometimes. 10.Why are you mad?
Connotation is the emotional and imaginative association surrounding a word. Denotation is the strict dictionary meaning of a word. Example: The word "snake" simple denotes a reptile. But it has the connotation of someone who can not be trusted, someone... Think of the word MOTHER: Connotation: Denotation: Activity #2
Activity #3 Use a dictionary and/or thesaurus to look up the following words. Answer the questions under each: Monster - What is a different word that can be used in place of this word? What is the connotation of this word? What is the denotation of this word? Abyss - What is a different word that can be used in place of this word? What is the connotation of this word? What is the denotation of this word? Dancer - What is a different word that can be used in place of this word? What is the connotation of this word? What is the denotation of this word?
Sentences Simple, Compound, Complex #2
SIMPLE SENTENCE A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought. Examples: A. Some students like to study in the mornings. B. Juan and Arturo play football every afternoon. C. Alicia goes to the library and studies every day. COMPOUND SENTENCE A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. (Helpful hint: The first letter of each of the coordinators spells FANBOYS.) Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma. Examples: A. I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English. B. Alejandro played football, so Maria went shopping. C. Alejandro played football, for Maria went shopping.
COMPLEX SENTENCE A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which. Examples: A. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page. B. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error. C. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow. D. After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the movies. E. Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying.
Identify the type of sentence – simple, compound or complex. While the sun shone, they stayed on the beach. I went into town and then drove to Manchester airport. All of a sudden, in the middle of the match, the phone rang. The girl had a blister on her heel. The panda ate loads of bamboo shoots. Caravans were parked all the way along the coast. The new Harry Potter book is brilliant. I like all types of food including fish. When the branch snapped, Matt fell out of the tree and broke his arm. Elephants are bigger than snails. Elephants, which are large mammals, are bigger than snails. Mice like to eat grain. In India, during the monsoon season, it is extremely hot and wet.
Transitions & Conjunctive Adverbs #3
LIST OF COMMON TRANSITION WORDS/PHRASES: Addition: also, again, as well as, besides, coupled with, furthermore, in addition, likewise, moreover, similarly Consequence: accordingly, as a result, consequently, for this reason, for this purpose, hence, otherwise, so then, subsequently, therefore, thus, thereupon, wherefore Generalizing: as a rule, as usual, for the most part, generally, generally speaking, ordinarily, usually Exemplifying: chiefly, especially, for instance, in particular, markedly, namely, particularly, including, specifically, such as Illustration: for example, for instance, for one thing, as an illustration, illustrated with, as an example, in this case Emphasis above all, chiefly, with attention to, especially, particularly, singularly Similarity: comparatively, coupled with, correspondingly, identically, likewise, similar, moreover, together with
Exception: aside from, barring, besides, except, excepting, excluding, exclusive of, other than, outside of, save Restatement: in essence, in other words, namely, that is, that is to say, in short, in brief, to put it differently Contrast and Comparison: contrast, by the same token, conversely, instead, likewise, on one hand, on the other hand, on the contrary, rather, similarly, yet, but, however, still, nevertheless, in contrast Sequence: at first, first of all, to begin with, in the first place, at the same time, for now, for the time being, the next step, in time, in turn, later on, meanwhile, next, then, soon, the meantime, later, while, earlier, simultaneously, afterward, in conclusion, with this in mind, Summarizing: after all, all in all, all things considered, briefly, by and large, in any case, in any event, in brief, in conclusion, on the whole, in short, in summary, in the final analysis, in the long run, on balance, to sum up, to summarize, finally Diversion: by the way, incidentally Direction: here, there, over there, beyond, nearly, opposite, under, above, to the left, to the right, in the distance aside frombarringbesideexceptexceptingexcludingexclusive ofother than outside ofsave
TRANSITION WORDS Transition words are used to link sentences and ideas. If you use them correctly, your writing will be easier to understand and more mature. Look for transitions when you are reading the newspaper, a magazine, or a book. Notice how other writers have used these words, then try to use them yourself in your own writing. Directions: For practice, use transition words to complete the following sentences: 1. I would like to see you tomorrow, _______________ lets have lunch together. 2. My sister loves to eat, _______________ I dont care much about food. 3. When you begin an exercise program, you must be careful not to overdo it. My father _______________ hurt his back by exercising too hard without warming up first. 4. She had looked everywhere for a job; _______________, she was called for an interview. Practice
5. She had been studying for hours. _______________, she hoped to do well on the test. 6. First, Mary went to the store. _______________, she went to visit her mother. 7. I would like to read many books; _______________, I dont seem to have as a result enough time to read. 8. John ate and ate; _______________, he never gained weight. 9. Joe ate too fast. _______________, he had indigestion. 10. He stayed up too late last night; _______________, he slept until noon. 11. I want you to buy milk, eggs, and fruit juice; _______________, I want you to be sure to get cereal and ice cream. 12. I was concentrating on my homework. _______________, the soup boiled over. 13. _______________, I will boil the water. Second, I will brew the tea, and _______________, I will serve it. 14. Joe, _______________, happens to be my best friend. 15. Jane studies all the time; _______________, Billy never studies. Practice
Here is a list of common conjunctive adverbs. accordingly, furthermore, moreover, similarly, also, hence, namely, still, anyway, however, nevertheless, then, besides, incidentally, next, thereafter, certainly, indeed, nonetheless, therefore, consequently, instead, now, thus, finally, likewise, otherwise, undoubtedly, further, meanwhile. Rule 5: A semicolon and a comma are used together when a conjunctive adverb separates two main clauses. Ex: I wanted to go; however, I was too busy.
Adjectives Adverbial & Adjectival Phrases #4
AuricularFluffySharp BoilingFreezingSilky BreezyFuzzySlick BumpyGreasySlimy ChillyHardSlippery ColdHotSmooth CoolIcySoft CuddlyLooseSolid DamagedMeltedSteady DampPainfulSticky DirtyPlasticTender DryPricklyTight DustyRoughUneven FilthyShaggyWarm FlakyShakyWet An adjective is a word that describes, identifies or further defines a noun or a pronoun. There are thousands of adjectives available to describe how something feels, looks, sounds, tastes and acts. Here are a few examples: To Describe Touch Bitter Lemon- flavored Spicy BlandMintySweet DeliciousPickledTangy FruitySaltyTasty GingerySourYummy To Describe Taste
BlaringMelodicScreeching DeafeningMoaningShrill FaintMuffledSilent HoarseMuteSoft High-pitchedNoisySquealing HissingPurringSqueaking HushedQuietThundering HuskyRaspyVoiceless LoudResonantWhispering To Describe Sound AzureGrayPinkish BlackGreenPurple BlueIndigoRed BrightLavenderRosy BrownLightScarlet CrimsonMagentaSilver DarkMulticoloredTurquoise DrabMustardViolet DullOrangeWhite GoldPinkYellow To Describe Color
AbundantJumboPuny Big-bonedLargeScrawny ChubbyLittleShort FatLongSmall GiantMajesticTall GiganticMammothTeeny GreatMassiveThin HugeMiniatureTiny ImmensePetiteVast To Describe Size BlobbyDistortedRotund BroadFlatRound ChubbyFluffySkinny CircularGlobularSquare CrookedHollowSteep CurvedLowStraight CylindricalNarrowTriangular DeepOvalWide To Describe Shape AnnualFuturisticRapid BriefHistoricalRegular DailyIrregularShort EarlyLateSlow EternalLongSpeed FastModernSpeedy FirstOldSwift Fleet Old- fashioned Waiting FutureQuickYoung To Describe Time
AllHeavyOne AmpleHundredsPaltry Astronomica l LargePlentiful BountifulLightProfuse Considerabl e LimitedSeveral CopiousLittleSizable CountlessManySome EachMeaslySparse EnoughMereSubstantial EveryMultipleTeeming FewMyriadTen FullNumerousVery To Describe an Amount AbrasiveEmbarrassedGrumpy AbruptEnergeticKind AfraidEnragedLazy AgreeableEnthusiasticLively AggressiveEnviousLonely AmiableEvilLucky AmusedExcitedMad AngryExhaustedManic AnnoyedExuberantMysterious AshamedFairNervous BadFaithfulObedient BitterFantasticObnoxious BewilderedFierceOutrageous BoringFinePanicky BraveFoolishPerfect To Describe an Emotion
AggressiveFamousRestless AgoraphobicFearlessRich AmbidextrousFertileRighteous AmbitiousFragileRitzy AmoralFrankRomantic AngelicFunctionalRustic BrainyGabbyRuthless BreathlessGenerousSassy BusyGiftedSecretive CalmHelpfulSedate CapableHesitantShy CarelessInnocentSleepy CautiousInquisitiveSomber CheerfulInsaneStingy CleverJauntyStupid CommonJuicySuper CompleteMachoSwanky ConcernedManlyTame CrazyModernTawdry CuriousMushyTerrific To Describe a Person or Personality AblazeDistinctQuirky AdorableDrabRuddy AlluringDullShiny AttractiveElegantSkinny AverageEmbarrassedSloppy AwkwardFancySmiling BalancedFatSparkling BeautifulFilthySpotless BlondeGlamorousStrange BloodyGleamingTacky BlushingGlossyTall BrightGracefulThin CleanGrotesqueUgly ClearHandsomeUnattractive CloudyHomelyUnbecoming ClumsyInteriorUncovered ColorfulLovelyUnsightly To Describe Appearance
Adjective Phrase. An adjective phrase is a group of words that functions like an adjective in a sentence. It consists of adjectives, modifier and any word that modifies a noun or pronoun. An adjective phrase functions like an adjective to modify (or tell about) a noun or a pronoun in a sentence. Examples. He is wearing a nice red shirt. (modifies shirt) The girl with brown hair is singing a song. (modifies girl) He gave me a glass full of water. (modifies glass) A boy from America won the race. (modifies boy) Prepositional phrases and participle phrases also function as adjectives so we can also call them adjective phrases when they function as adjective. In the above sentence The girl with brown hair is singing a song, the phrase with brown hair is a prepositional phrase but it functions as an adjective.
Adverb Phrase An adverb phrase is a group of words that functions as an adverb in a sentence. It consists of adverbs or other words (preposition, noun, verb, modifiers) that make a group with works like an adverb in a sentence. An adverb phrase functions like an adverb to modify a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Examples He always behaves in a good manner. (modifies verb behave) They were shouting in a loud voice. (modifies verb shout) She always drives with care. (modifies verb drive) He sat in a corner of the room. (modifies verb sit) He returned in a short while. (modifies verb return) A prepositional phrase can also act as an adverb phrase. For example in above sentence He always behaves in a good manner, the phrase in a good manner is a prepositional phrase but it acts as adverb phrase here
Activity Write a complete paragraph about the following writing prompt: Write about a day that you will always remember. Be sure to include adjectives, adverbs, and phrases in your paragraph.
The correct use of plural and possessive forms may seem like a minor issue. Among educated persons, however, incorrect forms, especially misuses of apostrophes, stand out like red flags. One area executive has said he will not hire an applicant whose letter or resume includes such an error. Plural forms The plural form of a noun indicates simply that there are more than one of the person or thing in question. For most nouns, the plural form includes the letter "s" at the end of the word: Dogs Trees Turtles
Possessive forms (Bedford 36a/Hodges' 15a) A possessive form of a noun signifies that the noun owns something: A musician's talent A woman's ambition Possessive forms call for a properly placed apostrophe. The placement is different for singular and plural nouns. For this reason, you must know the correct singular and possessive nouns before you can make them possessive. Singular possessive The possessive form of a singular noun is an apostrophe followed by the letter "s." Kramer's hair Daphne's patience the car's engine Words ending with s, z or x generally omit the "s." Dr. Seuss' sense of humor Plural possessive In order to place the apostrophe correctly in plural nouns, you must first be certain of the plural form. If you have questions about these forms, you may want to browse the section on plural nouns above. For plural nouns ending in "s," add only an apostrophe: Singers' voices The cousins' favorite uncle For plural nouns not ending in "s," add an apostrophe and "s." Men's clothing Children's books
Negative + Negative = Positive Negative + Positive = Negative A double negative is the nonstandard usage of two negatives used in the same sentence so that they cancel each other and create a positive. In Shakespeare's day, double negatives were considered emphatic, but today, they are considered grammar mistakes. Remembering that two negatives form a positive will help you to avoid the "double negative" grammar problem: No not None nothing nowhere neither Nobody no one hardly scarcely barely
Subject / Verb Agreement Prepositions #6
Basic Rule The basic rule states that a singular subject takes a singular verb, while a plural subject takes a plural verb. NOTE: The trick is in knowing whether the subject is singular or plural. The next trick is recognizing a singular or plural verb. Hint: Verbs do not form their plurals by adding an s as nouns do. In order to determine which verb is singular and which one is plural, think of which verb you would use with he or she and which verb you would use with they. Example: talks, talk Which one is the singular form? Which word would you use with he? We say, "He talks." Therefore, talks is singular. We say, "They talk." Therefore, talk is plural.
Rule 1 Two singular subjects connected by or or nor require a singular verb. Example: My aunt or my uncle is arriving by train today. Rule 2 Two singular subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor require a singular verb as in Rule 1. Examples: Neither Juan nor Carmen is available. Either Kiana or Casey is helping today with stage decorations. Rule 3 When I is one of the two subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor, put it second and follow it with the singular verb am. Example: Neither she nor I am going to the festival. Rule 4 When a singular subject is connected by or or nor to a plural subject, put the plural subject last and use a plural verb. Example: The serving bowl or the plates go on that shelf.
Rule 5 When a singular and plural subject are connected by either/or or neither/nor, put the plural subject last and use a plural verb. Example: Neither Jenny nor the others are available. Rule 6 As a general rule, use a plural verb with two or more subjects when they are connected by and. Example: A car and a bike are my means of transportation. Rule 7 Sometimes the subject is separated from the verb by words such as along with, as well as, besides, or not. Ignore these expressions when determining whether to use a singular or plural verb. Examples: The politician, along with the newsmen, is expected shortly. Excitement, as well as nervousness, is the cause of her shaking.
Rule 9 With words that indicate portionspercent, fraction, part, majority, some, all, none, remainder, and so forth look at the noun in your of phrase (object of the preposition) to determine whether to use a singular or plural verb. If the object of the preposition is singular, use a singular verb. If the object of the preposition is plural, use a plural verb. Examples: Fifty percent of the pie has disappeared. Pie is the object of the preposition of. Fifty percent of the pies have disappeared. Pies is the object of the preposition. One-third of the city is unemployed. One-third of the people are unemployed. NOTE: Hyphenate all spelled-out fractions. All of the pie is gone. All of the pies are gone. Some of the pie is missing. Some of the pies are missing. None of the garbage was picked up. None of the sentences were punctuated correctly. Of all her books, none have sold as well as the first one.
Rule 10 The expression the number is followed by a singular verb while the expression a number is followed by a plural verb. Examples: The number of people we need to hire is thirteen. A number of people have written in about this subject. Rule 11 When either and neither are subjects, they always take singular verbs. Examples: Neither of them is available to speak right now. Either of us is capable of doing the job. Rule 12 The words here and there have generally been labeled as adverbs even though they indicate place. In sentences beginning with here or there, the subject follows the verb. Examples: There are four hurdles to jump. There is a high hurdle to jump.
Rule 13 Use a singular verb with sums of money or periods of time. Examples: Ten dollars is a high price to pay. Five years is the maximum sentence for that offense. Rule 14 Sometimes the pronoun who, that, or which is the subject of a verb in the middle of the sentence. The pronouns who, that, and which become singular or plural according to the noun directly in front of them. So, if that noun is singular, use a singular verb. If it is plural, use a plural verb. Examples: Salma is the scientist who writes/write the reports. The word in front of who is scientist, which is singular. Therefore, use the singular verb writes. He is one of the men who does/do the work. The word in front of who is men, which is plural. Therefore, use the plural verb do.
Rule 15 Collective nouns such as team and staff may be either singular or plural depending on their use in the sentence. Examples: The staff is in a meeting. Staff is acting as a unit here. The staff are in disagreement about the findings. The staff are acting as separate individuals in this example. The sentence would read even better as: The staff members are in disagreement about the findings.
What is a Preposition? preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence.nounspronounsphrasessentence The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of theobject preposition. A preposition usually indicates the temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of the sentence as in the following examples : The book is on the table. The book is beneath the table. The book is leaning against the table. The book is beside the table. She held the book over the table. She read the book during class. In each of the preceding sentences, a preposition locates the noun "book" in space or in time. A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its objectprepositional phrase and any associated adjectives or adverbs. A prepositional phrase can functionadjectivesadverbs as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. The most common prepositions are "about," "above," "across," "after," "against," "along," "among," "around," "at, "before," "behind," "below," "beneath," "beside," "between," "beyond," "but," "by," "despite," "down," "during," "except," "for," "from," "in," "inside," "into," "like, "near," "of," "off," "on," "onto," "out," "outside," "over," "past," "since," "through," "throughout," "till," "to," "toward," "under," "underneath," "until," "up," "upon," "with," "within," and "without."
Subordinating Conjunctions #7
afterhowtill ( or 'til) althoughifunless asinasmuchuntil as ifin order thatwhen as long aslestwhenever as much asnow thatwhere as soon asprovided (that)wherever as thoughsincewhile becauseso that beforethan even ifthat even thoughthough Subordinating Conjunction A subordinating conjunction joins a subordinate clause to a main clause.subordinate clausemain clause. The following is a list of the most common subordinating conjunctions.
Review all of the capitalization rules on pages of the Writing Coach book. On page 610: Complete 26.1 A (Evens) & 26.1 B (Odds) On page 611: Complete 26.1 C (Evens) & 26.1 D (Odds)
Whole Class Lessons Scoring Practice Passages Extraneous Info – What to omit Adding Sentences
Scoring Give each student a copy of the state rubric for narrative writing & one for expository. As a class, review student writing and grade. Students will then review their own writing to determine strengths and weaknesses.
Practice Passages Complete 1 or 2 as a group. Students individually complete a passage.
Extraneous Information Discuss this topic while reviewing practice passages and writing samples.
Adding Sentences Coming soon… Mrs. Wirag is working on this assignment.