Presentation on theme: "CLIMATE CHANGE – EFFECTS AND RESPONSES (NIGERIAS PERSPECTIVE) By Dr. Amechi. J. Ujam Being A Paper presented at the 2010 End of Year Get- Together of."— Presentation transcript:
CLIMATE CHANGE – EFFECTS AND RESPONSES (NIGERIAS PERSPECTIVE) By Dr. Amechi. J. Ujam Being A Paper presented at the 2010 End of Year Get- Together of Awkunanaw Enlightenment Foundation (AWKLITE) Holding at Royal Palace Hotels, Enugu 18 th December,2010
Highlights. This lecture shall endeavour to elaborate on the following topics: Climate Climate Change Ozone Ozone layer Ozone layer depletion Green House Effects Global Warming Impacts of climate change on our environment Nigerias responses to effects of climate change
Introduction - Definitions A regions climate is the collective expression of the locations many weather elements: temperature, rainfall, dew, humidity, wind, sunshine, mist, haze and clouds. The term Climate Change is used to describe a marked change in the long term average of a regions weather conditions. When we speak of Climate Change on a global scale, we are referring to changes in the climate of the Earth as a whole. Ozone or trioxygen (O 3 ) is a triatomic molecule, consisting of three oxygen atoms. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is much less stable than the diatomic O 2.moleculeoxygen atomsallotropediatomic Three forms (or allotropes) of oxygen are involved in the ozone-oxygen cycle: oxygen atoms (O or atomic oxygen), oxygen gas (O 2 or diatomic oxygen), and ozone gas (O 3 or triatomic oxygen).allotropesozone-oxygen cycle oxygen Ozone is formed in the stratosphere when oxygen molecules photo dissociate after absorbing an ultraviolet photon whose wavelength is shorter than 240 nm. Ozonephoto dissociateultraviolet
Introduction - Definitions This produces two oxygen atoms. The atomic oxygen then combines with oxygen gas (O 2 ) to create O 3. Ozone molecules absorb ultraviolet light between 310 and 200 nm, following which ozone splits into a molecule of O 2 and an oxygen atom. The oxygen atom then joins up with an oxygen molecule to regenerate ozone. This is a continuing process which terminates when an oxygen atom "recombines" with an ozone molecule to make two O 2 molecules: O 2 + photon (radiation< 240 nm) 2 O (1)photon O + O 2 O 3 (2) O + O 3 2 O 2. (3) The overall amount of ozone in the stratosphere is determined by a balance between photochemical production and recombination. Ozone Layer The highest levels of ozone in the atmosphere are in the stratosphere, in a region also known as the ozone layer between about 10 km and 50 km above the surface (or between about 6 and 31 miles, see Fig. 1).stratosphereozone layer Here it filters out photons with shorter wavelengths (less than 320 nm) of ultraviolet light, also called UV rays, (270 to 400 nm) from the Sun that would be harmful to most forms of life in large doses.photonsSun life The ozone layer in the upper atmosphere filters potentially damaging ultraviolet light from reaching the Earth's surface.ozone layeratmosphereultraviolet lightEarth
Fig.1 Ozone Layer
Introduction - Definitions Ozone Layer Depletion Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4% per decade in the total volume of Ozone in Earths stratosphere(ozone layer) since the late 1970s, and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth's polar regions during the same period. The latter phenomenon is commonly referred to as the ozone hole. In addition to this well-known stratospheric ozone depletion, there are also tropospheric ozone depletion events, which occur near the surface in Polar Regions during spring. The overall cause of ozone depletion is the presence of chlorine-containing source gases (primarily CFCs and related halocarbons). In the presence of ultraviolet light, these gases dissociate, releasing chlorine atoms, which then go on to catalyze ozone destruction.
Fig. 2 Ozone Hole
Ozone Layer Depletion In 1974 it was discovered by some Scientists that the ozone layer in the stratosphere is being depleted by some refrigerants. This discovery has been a source of concern to Engineers, Scientists, Users and Manufacturers of refrigeration equipment and the World at large. These refrigerants are the ones containing some chlorine atoms which destroy the ozone layer between 11 and 15km from the surface of the earth with resultant consequences to the environment and human beings.
Ozone Layer Depletion The refrigerants containing the chlorine atoms are known as Halocarbons (Chlorofluorocarbons – CFC), such as R- 11, R – 12, R – 22, R – 113, etc. These CFCs have varying degrees of ozone depletion potential (ODP) - R 11 – 100%; R 12 – 86%; R113 – 80%; R22 – 5%. Additionally they act as Green House gases and thus have Global Warming Potential (GWP). These compounds are transported into the stratosphere after being emitted at the surface. Once in the stratosphere, the Cl and Br atoms are liberated from the parent compounds by the action of ultraviolet light, e.g. CFCl 3 + hν CFCl 2 + Cl.(4) The Cl and Br atoms can then destroy ozone molecules through a variety of catalytic cycles.
Fig.3 Sources of Stratospheric Chlorine
Ozone Layer Depletion In the simplest example of such a cycle, a chlorine atom reacts with an ozone molecule, taking an oxygen atom with it (forming ClO) and leaving a normal oxygen molecule. The chlorine monoxide (i.e., the ClO) can react with a second molecule of ozone (i.e., O 3 ) to yield another chlorine atom and two molecules of oxygen. These gas-phase reactions are: Cl + O 3 ClO + O 2 (5) ClO + O 3 Cl + 2 O 2 (6) The overall effect is a decrease in the amount of ozone. More complicated mechanisms have been discovered that lead to ozone destruction in the lower stratosphere as well. A single chlorine atom would keep on destroying ozone (thus a catalyst) for up to two years (the time scale for transport back down to the troposphere), were it not for reactions that remove them from this cycle by forming reservoir species such as hydrogen chloride (HCl) and chlorine nitrate (ClONO 2 ).
Ozone Layer Depletion The chlorine atoms act as a catalyst, and each can break down tens of thousands of ozone molecules before being removed from the stratosphere. Given the longevity of CFC molecules, recovery times are measured in decades. It is calculated that a CFC molecule takes an average of 15 years to go from the ground level up to the upper atmosphere, and it can stay there for about a century, destroying up to one hundred thousand ozone molecules during that time (See figure 4).
Fig.4 Ozone Layer Destruction by CFCs
Global Warming Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near- surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation. Global surface temperature increased 0.74 ± 0.18 °C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) during the last century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that increasing greenhouse gas concentrations resulting from human activity such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation are responsible for most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the 20th century. Climate model projections summarized in the latest IPCC report indicate that the global surface temperature will probably rise a further 1.1 to 6.4 °C (2.0 to 11.5 °F) during the twenty-first century. The most commonly cited indication of global warming is the trend in globally averaged temperature near the Earth's surface. Expressed as a linear trend, this temperature rose by 0.74°C ±0.18°C over the period The rate of warming over the last 50 years of that period was almost double that for the period as a whole (0.13°C ±0.03°C per decade, versus 0.07°C ± 0.02°C per decade).
Greenhouse Effect The greenhouse effect is the process by which absorption and emission of infrared radiation by gases in the atmosphere warm a planet's lower atmosphere and surface. Naturally occurring greenhouse gases have a mean warming effect of about 33 °C (59 °F). The major greenhouse gases are water vapour (not including clouds), which causes about 36–70 percent of the greenhouse effect; carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), which causes 9–26 percent; methane (CH 4 ), which causes 4–9 percent and ozone (O 3 ), which causes 3–7 percent. Human activity since the industrial revolutionhas increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, leading to increased radiation from CO 2, methane, tropospheric ozone, CFCs and nitrous oxide. The concentration of CO 2 and methane have increased by 36% and 148% respectively since the mid-1700s. Fossil fuel burning has produced about three-quarters of the increase in CO 2 from human activity over the past 20 years. Most of the rest is due to land-use change, in particular deforestation.
Impact of Climate Change on Nigeria (overview) Climate Change is much more than a warming trend. Most experts agree that average global temperatures could rise by 1 to 3.5 degrees Celsius over the next century. Some of the current and projected climate changes include the following: retreating Alpine glaciers, a rise in sea levels, a shifting of global climatic zones; an increased incidence and severity of extreme weather; prolonged heat waves; changes in precipitation levels leading to increased drought, desertification and flooding. As such, Climate Change can create a significant loss of food security, natural disasters, a vanishing of coastlines, human displacement, natural resource depletion, a lack of clean and accessible water, animal migration, pest management issues, diseases and other health issues; a loss of cultural practices and traditional ways of life; economic downturns, energy crisis and more. Studies show that Nigeria is affected by Climate Change in various sectors such as, Human settlements and health; Water resources, Wetlands, and Freshwater ecosystems; Energy, Industry, Commerce, and Financial services; Agriculture, Food security, Land degradation, Forestry, and Biodiversity; and Coastal zone and Marine ecosystems. Since the ozone layer absorbs UVB ultraviolet light from the Sun, ozone layer depletion is expected to increase surface UVB levels, which could lead to damage, including increases in skin cancer. This was the reason for the Montreal Protocol. Increased atmospheric CO 2 increases the amount of CO 2 dissolved in the oceans. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) dissolved in the ocean reacts with water to form carbonic acid resulting in ocean acidification
Impact of Climate Change on Nigeria (Overview) Nigeria, and all the countries of Sub Saharan Africa, are highly vulnerable to the impacts of Climate Change, according to the Third and Fourth Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change. It was noted that Nigeria specifically ought to be concerned by Climate Change due to a number of reasons which include: The countrys high vulnerability due to its long (800km) coastline that is prone to sea level rise and the risk of fierce storms Almost 2/3 of Nigerias land cover is prone to drought and desertification Nigerias water resources are under threat which will affect energy sources (Kainji and Shiroro) Rain fed agriculture and fishing activities from which 2/3 of the Nigerian population depend primarily on for food are under serious threat. Nigeria has a very high population pressures140 million people surviving on the physical environment through various activities within an area of 923,000 square kilometers Nigeria lacks the financial capacity and technological know how to combat the postulated negative impacts of Climate Change
Impact of Climate Change on Nigeria (Overview) Nigeria does not yet have a fully established institutional and legal framework, nor systematic approaches and policies targeted at combating, mitigating and adapting to the impacts of Climate Change. Given the above factors, it is clear that Nigerias long term development priority of poverty reduction, the Millennium Development Goals and Governments Seven Point Agenda will be severely constrained if insufficient attention is paid to the current and future impacts of Climate Change on the nation. More than two thirds of Nigeria is prone to desertification. Climate Change is predicted to worsen the incidence of drought and desertification and millions of people will be turned into refugees because of the disaster. States, such as Borno, Sokoto, Jigawa, Zamfara, Kebbi, Yobe, Kaduna, Kano Bauchi, Adamawa, Niger and others are at risk.
Impact of Climate Change on Nigeria (Human Settlement and Health) There are many ways that climate change could affect human settlements and health. Some of the impacts will be direct, others will be indirect. Urban populations are growing and contributing to environmental degradation, loss of biodiversity, environmental decay, and water/air/environmental pollution Human settlements in Nigeria have been affected by climate change in a variety of ways. Urban and rural population concentrations have been disrupted, particularly along the coastline due to sea-level rise and related phenomena. Some settlements are known to have already relocated farther inland from their original sites in response to sea incursion over some decades. Population displacement and migration from, and to, various human settlements arise from either or both of drought incidence in the Northern states of the country and accelerated sea level rise in the coastal regions (see figure 5). Rises in sea-level have also threatened urban and rural infrastructure facilities in low lying coastal regions Extreme climate conditions such as high wind, heavy rainfall, heat and cold can result in wide-ranging scenarios such as tropical storms, floods, landslides, droughts and sea-level rise.
Fig.5 Flood Disaster at Sokoto State
Impact of Climate Change on Nigeria (Human Settlement and Health) Climatic catastrophes induce populations to be displaced (or decimated by death), which in turn can lead to conflict and civil unrest. As well, the public health infrastructure would be eroded if resources are diverted from its maintenance to disaster recovery. Communities and government would be burdened with having to make reparations to individuals for property damage and loss, unemployment, clean-up, and reduced socioeconomic viability of the communities affected. Pests and diseases are implicated in climate change. Significant climatic conditions such as temperature, precipitation, sunshine and wind can affect and accelerate their dispersion and their increase. Food crops are affected by their presence (creating economic problems because of low agricultural yields and food shortages, as well as human population problems such as malnutrition). Pests and diseases can adversely affect animal husbandry; it also cause human suffering (for example, malaria, cholera, typhoid and dengue fever) which in turn affects the effectiveness and productivity of Nigeria's labour force.
Impact of Climate Change on Nigeria ( Water Resources, Wetlands, and Freshwater Ecosystems ) Nigerians do not enjoy adequate water supply. The existing permanent water sources in the country such as the Transboundary Rivers are shared with other countries in the sub-region. The problem of water shortage is more prominent and severe in the northern areas of the country that have limited sources of water and harsh weather conditions. The low-lying nature of Nigeria's 800 km coastline from Lagos to Calabar makes the region vulnerable to climate change. It is prone to sea-water intrusion into coastal fresh water resources and consequently inland fisheries and aquaculture are negatively affected. There is a high frequency of coastal erosion and flooding both climate change-induced forms of land degradation. Drought – the total absence of rain for a very long time to the detriment of agricultural and other water related activities – is of concern. It leads to a distortion of seasonal patterns (which drastically affects agricultural yield) and increased incidence of soil erosion caused by excessive flooding and sporadic storm. It also kills livestock. An increase in soil erosion clearly affects water resources as siltation affects the level and volume of stream, lakes and ponds.
Impact of Climate Change on Nigeria (Water Resources, Wetlands, and Freshwater Ecosystems ) Other factors such as increased desert encroachment and excessive heat have an inescapable impact on humankind and water-use. The impact of changes in water resources is overwhelming. It is obvious that rainfall variability, climate, soil, agrochemicals and diseases have a direct impact on water resources. Climate change has brought about changes in rainfall patterns, variability in rainfall, changes in water level, changes in the water level/volume of ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and frequency of storms and drought. With increasing global warming and higher temperatures, a number of phenomena associated with water bodies in different ecological zones of Nigeria have been identified. Prominent among them are the following: Reduced water volume in streams and rivers, arising from different scales of water diversion for rudimentary irrigation activities, siltation of stream beds due to deposition of materials by water run-off, as well as evapo- transpiration ; Drying up of water sources due to increased evapo-transpiration, and loss of vegetation in head waters (the primary role of vegetation in head waters being to collect water which feeds the stream; climate change diminishes the performance of this function);
Impact of Climate Change on Nigeria ( Energy, Industry, Commerce and Financial Services ) Hydropower generation is the energy source most likely to be affected by climate change. It is sensitive to the amount, timing, and geographical pattern of precipitation, as well as temperature. There is the potential for more intense rainfall events (which would require more conservative water storage strategies to prevent flood damage), greater probability of drought (less hydroelectric production), and less precipitation (less water available during warm months); all of which point to less hydroelectric capacity at current powerhouses. Reduced flows in rivers and higher temperatures reduce the capabilities of thermal electric generation. Higher temperatures also reduce transmission capabilities. Hydropower generation will be affected by increased run-off (and consequent siltation). Excessive drought will lead to higher evapo- transpiration, which adversely affects water volume, and will thus reduce hydroelectric capacity.
Impact of Climate Change on Nigeria ( Energy, Industry, Commerce and Financial Services ) Excessive drought, which is likely to affect forest cover, will also pose problems for fuel wood supply. Oil and gas production, especially in coastal areas, will be negatively affected by increased wind and wave action, heavy precipitation, and shoreline erosion. It will also be affected by the loss of oil and gas extraction infrastructure due to sea-level rise and coastal inundation. Climate change-induced extreme weather events such as windstorms, floods and tornadoes (which can topple transmission towers and hundreds of kilometers of power lines) will exacerbate the rate of failure of transmission systems of electric utilities. Two categories of industries were identified as being vulnerable to climate change: (1) Industries with activities that are dependent on climate (construction, transportation operations and infrastructure, energy transportation and transmission, offshore oil and gas production, thermal power generation, industries, such as paper mills, that depend heavily on water, pollution control, coastal-sited industry, and tourism and recreation), and (2) Sectors in which economic activity is dependent on climate-sensitive resources (agro-industry, biomass and other renewable energy production).
Impact of Climate Change on Nigeria ( Agriculture, Food Security, Land Degradation, Forestry and Bio-Diversity) A variety of foods crops are produced in Nigeria, all dependent on rainfall, so that where rain is abundant (from the coast up to the Middle Belt, for example) crops dependent on rain are planted, and in drier parts of the country, crops that do not require much rain are cultivated. Food production on the whole has not kept pace with Nigerias population increase. For example, uncertainties in the onset of the farming season, due to changes in rainfall characteristics (early rains may not be sustained, and crops planted at their instance may become smothered by heat waves) can lead to an unusual sequence of crop planting and replanting which may result in food shortages due to harvest failure. Extreme weather events such as thunderstorms, heavy winds, and floods, devastate farmlands and can lead to crop failure. Pests and crop and diseases migrate in response to Climate Changes and variations (e.g. the tsetse fly has extended its range northward) and will potentially pose a threat to livestock in the drier northern areas. It is estimated that by 2100, Nigeria and other West African countries are likely to have agricultural losses of up to 4 % of GDP due to climate change.
Global Reactions to Effects of Climate Change (ozone depletion) After a 1976 report by the U.S National Academy of Science concluded that credible scientific evidence supported the ozone depletion hypothesis, a few countries, including the United States, Canada, Sweden, and Norway, moved to eliminate the use of CFCs in aerosol spray cans. At the time this was widely regarded as a first step towards a more comprehensive regulation policy, but progress in this direction slowed in subsequent years, due to a combination of political factors (continued resistance from the halocarbon industry and a general change in attitude towards environmental regulation during the first two years of the Reagan administration) and scientific developments (subsequent National Academy assessments which indicated that the first estimates of the magnitude of ozone depletion had been overly large). The European Community rejected proposals to ban CFCs in aerosol sprays while even in the U.S., CFCs continued to be used as refrigerants and for cleaning circuit boards. Worldwide CFC production fell sharply after the U.S. aerosol ban, but by 1986 had returned nearly to its 1976 level.
Global Reactions to Effects of Climate Change (Ozone Depletion) In nations, including most of the major CFC producers, signed the Vienna convention for Protection of Ozone Layer which established a framework for negotiating international regulations on ozone-depleting substances. That same year, the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole was announced, causing a revival in public attention to the issue. In 1987, representatives from 43 nations signed the Montreal protocol. Meanwhile, the halocarbon industry shifted its position and started supporting a protocol to limit CFC production. At Montreal, the participants agreed to freeze production of CFCs at 1986 levels and to reduce production by 50% by After a series of scientific expeditions to the Antarctic produced convincing evidence that the ozone hole was indeed caused by chlorine and bromine from man-made organohalogens, the Montreal Protocol was strengthened at a 1990 meeting in London. The participants agreed to phase out CFCs and halons entirely (aside from a very small amount marked for certain "essential" uses, such as asthma inhalers) by 2000.
Global Reactions to Effects of Climate Change (Ozone Depletion) At a 1992 meeting in Copenhagen, the phase out date was moved up to To some extent, CFCs have been replaced by the less damaging hydro-chloro-fluoro-carbons (HCFCs), although concerns remain regarding HCFCs also. In some applications, hydro-fluoro-carbons (HFCs) have been used to replace CFCs. HFCs, which contain no chlorine or bromine, do not contribute at all to ozone depletion although they are potent greenhouse gases. The best known of these compounds is probably HFC-134a (R-134a), which in the United States has largely replaced CFC-12 (R-12) in automobile air conditioners.
Global Reactions to Effects of Climate Change (Global Warming) The broad agreement among climate scientists that global temperatures will continue to increase has led some nations, states, corporations and individuals to implement responses. These responses to global warming can be divided into mitigation of the causes and effects of global warming, adaptation to the changing global environment, and geoengineering to reverse global warming. Mitigation The world's primary international agreement on reducing greenhouse gas emissions is the Kyoto protocol, negotiated in The Protocol now covers more than 160 countries and over 55 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions. As of June 2009, only the United States, historically the world's lagest emitter of greenhouse gases, has refused to ratify the treaty. The treaty expires in International talks began in May 2007 on a future treaty to succeed the current one. UN negotiations were further strengthened by a key meeting in copenhagen in December 2009.
Global Reactions to Effects of Climate Change (Global Warming) Adaptation A wide variety of measures have been suggested for adaptation to global warming. These range from the trivial, such as the installation of air conditioning equipment, up to major infrastructure projects, such as abandonment of settlements threatened by sea level rise. Measures including water conservation, water rationing, adaptive agricultural practices, construction of flood defences, changes to medical care, and interventions to protect threatened species have all been suggested. A wide ranging study of the possible opportunities for adaptation of infrastructure has been published by the Institute of Mechanical Engineers Geoengineering Geoengineering is the deliberate modification of Earth's natural environment on a large scale to suit human needs. An example is greenhouse gas remediation, which removes greenhouse gases from the atmosphere, usually through carbon sequestration techniques such as carbon dioxide air capture. Solar radiation management reduces insolation, such as by the addition of stratospheric sulfur aerosols. No large-scale geoengineering projects have yet been undertaken.
Nigerias Responses to Effects of Climate Change (Commitment to Treaties) When the phenomenon of Climate Change caught the Worlds attention, Nigeria was one of the 154 countries that initialed the Convention in Rio in 1992, and it became a party as soon as the Convention came into force. Nigeria was party to the ratified Convention on the 29 th of August, 1994 and has ratified the Kyoto Protocol. By 27th November, 1994, Nigeria became committed when the Convention entered into full force. As a signatory to United nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) under the Non Annex I parties, Nigerias obligation includes the following: To produce four key National Communications. The 1st and only National Communication was produced by Nigeria in November 2003.
Nigerias Responses to Effects of Climate Change (Commitment to Treaties) To produce four in-depth review summaries. To produce a demonstrable progress report To produce the National Adaptation Programme of Action To produce a Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Report As a party to the Convention, Nigeria must meet the obligations and commitments to the Convention, which is aimed primarily at controlling Climate Change by reducing to the absolute minimum the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Over and above this, the core challenge at the local level is to develop the framework and capacity: (i) to assess the vulnerability of sectors and sections to different scenarios of climate change impact, (ii) to develop, assess and implement mitigation and adaptation options, and (iii) to strengthen the negotiating ability in climate change transactions.
Nigerias Responses to Effects of Climate Change (Commitment to Treaties) Nigerias major achievement in responding to the Convention and the Protocol is the production of the First National Communication (FNC) in November, Though the second National Communication has not been produced, the process is definitely underway. A stakeholders initiation workshop on the Second National Communication (SNC) took place in December National experts to undertake works in the thematic areas have been identified, trained and classified into groups each with a lead Consultant. Nigeria is signing an agreement with Consultants who will go into the field to obtain data in this wise. Nigeria is also preparing for a meeting with the stakeholders on Climate Change.
Nigerias Responses to Effects of Climate Change (Action Plans) Nigerias response to Effects of Climate Change is classified into five action plans: Adaptation Research Component Pilot Projects Component Adaptation Policy Component Communication, Outreach and Networking Component Gender Equality as a Cross-Cutting Issue
Nigerias Responses to Effects of Climate Change (Adaptation Research Component) Research is needed to support improved understanding of the extent of past, current and future climate variability and potential climate change in Nigeria, as a basis for developing adaptation options likely to ensure that poor and disadvantaged groups benefit from the adaptation process rather than bearing the burdens. The strategic research programmes focus on the following: Improved understanding of the key drivers of climate variability and climate change. Improved computer models of climate variability and change. Assessment of vulnerability and impacts, including social and economic vulnerability Assessment of the scenarios and framework for adaptation to biophysical impacts. Assessment of options for adaptation (including gender dimensions). Development of a national climate change information/data system (NCCIDS).
Nigerias Responses to Effects of Climate Change ( Pilot Projects Component) The goal of community-based adaptation (CBA) projects is to increase resilience of communities by enhancing their capacity to cope with climate change impacts. Pilot projects at the community level can provide lessons that reflect unique local circumstances. They can guide policies and projects so as to enhance the capacities of males and females to respond to the effects of climate change and reduce possible impacts upon their livelihoods. They can also provide lessons from which development organizations and local communities can learn. This component is focusing upon vulnerability reduction and adaptation by establishing projects that consist of the following elements: Community situation assessment (current vulnerabilities, risks, impacts, adaptive capacity, adaptive practices, gender assessment, culture, community structure, etc.) Community needs assessment (awareness of and response to current climate variability and expected climate change)
Nigerias Responses to Effects of Climate Change (Adaptation Policy Component) Numerous policies related to environment and climate does exist in Nigeria covering several sectors such as environment, energy, agriculture, health and sanitation, housing and urban development, and gender. However, many of these policies were formulated solely by the federal government using the top-down approach. Furthermore, there is lack of proper coordination between these policies and sectors, which has limited the focus on climate change adaptation. A National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy could help address this situation by guiding the integration of climate change adaptation into government policies, strategies, and programmes, with particular focus on the most vulnerable groups.
Nigerias Responses to Effects of Climate Change (Communication, Outreach and Networking Component) The effective promotion of access to information on vulnerabilities, impacts and adaptation to climate change represents an indispensable element in building Nigerias national response to climate change. Effective information dissemination and networking (in the right format, quality and language) enhances peoples knowledge base for proactive engagement on climate change and its effects, and creates a sound foundation for policy formulation and action on climate change adaptation
Nigerias Responses to Effects of Climate Change (Gender Equality) Scientific evidence suggests that the world's climate is changing and no one will be immune from the overall impacts. But climate change will have a disproportionate effect on the lives of poor people in developing countries, where poverty increases people's vulnerability to its harmful effects. In both rural and urban centres environmental degradation results in negative effects on health, well-being and quality of life of the population at large, particularly girls and women of all ages. There is enough evidence to show that women are at the centre of sustainable development, and that ensuring greater gender equality in all sectors benefits society as a whole. Yet, debates into mainstreaming gender issues on climate change and sustainable development is happening slowly and in a piecemeal fashion, with varying degrees of success. This is made more complex by women's lack of participation in decision- making at all levels, and the fact that the climate debate so far has made little effort to package the issues in a way that ordinary people can even understand, let alone participate in. It will not be until marginalized groups are given the opportunity to build their capacity, lower their vulnerability, and diversify their sources of income that policies on climate change can be successful.
Conclusion Nigeria, like other countries of the world is faced with challenges of climate change. The recent flood disasters in Sokoto, Lagos and Ogun States are typical manifestations of climate change. Interestingly, Nigeria is committed to the international treaties on Climate Change. With adequate and appropriate policy framework and action plan, Nigeria will not only adapt effectively to effects of climate change but will also strive to mitigate them. Awkunanaw clan is not alienated from these effects as environmental degradation of our natural resources are staring us in the face. It therefore behoves us to quickly employ adaptation mechanisms in order to contain the rising effects of climate change on our land and people.