Presentation on theme: "22-1 Humans and The Environment"— Presentation transcript:
1 22-1 Humans and The Environment Section 1 An Interconnected PlanetChapter 2222-1 Humans and The EnvironmentThe study of the interaction between humans and their own environment is environmental science.Humans, like all other organisms, depend on their environment for food, water, air, shelter, and other resources.The ability of humans to understand, manipulate, and possibly damage ecosystems exceeds that of other organisms.Therefore environmental science may be critical to our own survival.
2 Chapter 22 Biodiversity Section 1 An Interconnected Planet Biodiversity refers to the variety of life found in an area. A measurement of Biodiversity is:1. Species richness refers to the number of unique species in an area.2. Species evenness refers to the relative number of individuals of each species in an area.Another type of biodiversity is genetic diversity.Genetic diversity is the amount of variation within the genetic material of a given population (gene pool).Genetic diversity affects a population’s ability to adapt when faced with environmental change.Evolution by natural selection acts on genetic variation.
3 Scientists have named and described about 2 million species. Section 1 An Interconnected PlanetChapter 22Valuing BiodiversityScientists have named and described about 2 million species.Some believe there may be 100 million total species.
4 Biodiversity provides important benefits to people. Food.Homes, fuel from trees.Medicine and useful chemicals.Undiscovered species may provide other benefits.Biodiversity provides important benefits to the survival of Earth.
5 22-2 Environmental Issues Section 2 Environmental IssuesChapter 2222-2 Environmental IssuesAs the human population increases, so does the human impact on the environment. Humans often cause pollution by putting substances that cause unintended harm into air, water, or soil. Many human activities disrupt ecosystems.
6 Chapter 22 Pollution Air pollution is blamed for causing: Section 2 Environmental IssuesChapter 22PollutionAir pollution is blamed for causing:Ozone thinningGlobal warmingSmogAcid precipitation
7 OzoneOzone—A gas molecule made of 3 oxygen atoms.Harmful in the lower atmosphereThe ozone layer floating 20 km above earth in the stratosphere. It shields earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV radiation).
8 Destruction of Ozone Layer Human-made chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) float up to the stratosphere and break down the ozone layer.CFCs were found in aerosol sprays and coolants in air conditioners and refrigerators.Since 1995 most countries have banned CFCs, but it will take many years for the ozone layer to recover.Destruction of Ozone Layer
9 Global WarmingMay be correlated to increased amounts of CO2 in atmosphereCutting down rain forests and burning fossil fuels lead to an increase in CO2 in the atmosphere.Global Warming
10 Smog Smog is a visible type of air pollution. Happens when water vapor mixes with pollutants from the burning of fuels and use of chemicals in homes and industries.May contain nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, organic chemicals, small particles, and ozone.Animals and plants are harmed by respiring pollutants in smog.
11 Acid PrecipitationAll rain is slightly acidic—CO2 in the air dissolves in the rainwater, creating carbonic acid.Certain air pollutants such as nitrates and sulfur compounds cause an increase in the normal acidity of rainwater.Acid rain can destroy forests, damage buildings, and kill fish and other organisms in lakes and ponds.
12 Chapter 22 Land and Water Pollution Section 2 Environmental IssuesChapter 22Land and Water PollutionThe release of toxic chemicals, such as DDT, into the biosphere can impact ecosystems in many ways, especially when chemicals undergo biological magnification.Biological magnification is a process in which chemicals become more concentrated in organisms that are higher on a food chain.
13 Biological Magnification of DDT Section 2 Environmental IssuesChapter 22Biological Magnification of DDT
14 Biological Magnification of Toxins Section 2 Environmental IssuesChapter 22Biological Magnification of ToxinsBald Eagles Return to the Channel Islands in CaliforniaVisual Concept
15 22-3 Conservation and Restoration Biology Our planet’s air, water, land and organisms are interconnected. Environmental problems connect across national boundaries, so solutions may require world wide efforts.
16 Section 3 Environmental Solutions Chapter 22Conservation biologists are concerned with identifying and maintaining ecosystems, while restoration biologists are usually involved with repairing badly damaged ecosystems.Environmental problems can be addressed through the combined efforts of governments, scientists, businesses, and individuals.
17 Your Role in the Environment Section 3 Environmental SolutionsChapter 22Your Role in the EnvironmentNo one can predict our environment’s future, but it is clear that individuals can make a difference in its fate.Thus, it is important for you, as an individual, to understand your role in the environment and to take responsibility for that role.
18 Chapter 22 Conservation Section 3 Environmental Solutions Click below to watch the Visual Concept.Visual Concept