2 Exposition or argument! Exposition texts are written for the purpose of presenting a point of view in favour or against a specific topic.The ultimate aim is to try to convince the reader to agree with your opinion, or take a certain course of action, by giving reasons and examples to support your ideas.Exposition texts:• are emotive • are biased • sound authoritative
3 Exposition or argument! emotiveadjectivearousing or able to arouse intense feeling: animal experimentation is an emotive subject the issue has proved highly emotive expressing a person’s feelings rather than being neutrally descriptive: the comparisons are emotive rather than analytic
4 Exposition or argument! biasedadjectiveunfairly prejudiced for or against someone or something: we will not tolerate this biased media coverage
5 Exposition or argument! sound authoritativeadjectiveable to be trusted as being accurate or true; reliable: clear, authoritative information and advice, an authoritative sourcecommanding and self-confident; likely to be respected and obeyed: his/her voice was calm and authoritative
6 Exposition or argument! StructureIntroductioninclude a statement to give the author’s opinionpreview important argumentsengage the reader’s attention“This is what I am going to say…………..”
7 Exposition or argument! StructureBodyinclude a series of paragraphsgive a new idea or argument with evidence and examples to support it in each paragraphuse persuasive languageuse researched, quoted or reported speechuse cohesive language to link ideas between paragraphs“Now I am saying it…………………”
8 Exposition or argument! StructureConclusionrestate the position of the writersum up the main argumentsinclude request action to be taken by the reader (optional)do NOT give any new information“This is what I have just said…………”Activity 1
9 Exposition or argument! Activity 1TitleEveryone must save energyIntroduction - Position statementThe position the writer is taking, background information and a preview of the main body/arguments is presented.Energy use at school must be reduced. There is much that can be done to save power and reduce energy consumption in schools. Technology in schools uses a lot of power, as do appliances that make our lives comfortable. We, students and teachers, can do a lot to save energy.Main body – ArgumentsExpands and elaborates the points made by the writer in the introduction. To strengthen the argument the elaboration may include statistics, quotes, evidence and examples.*Remember each new idea is a new paragraph.Technology such as computers, Smart Boards and projectors use a lot of energy. Therefore, to save energy this equipment should be turned off, or placed on standby, when not in use.Lights, air-conditioners, fans and heaters keep us comfortable but they also use energy in our schools.Students and teachers can turn off these appliances when they are not using the room to save on running costs.ConclusionSummarises and restates the position of the writer and sums up the main arguments. It may include a request for action to be taken by the reader.It does NOT give any new information.We can all save energy if we are contentious about how much we use the technology and appliances in our schools. This can be achieved by opening blinds to let in natural light, windows for air flow and by installing energy efficient appliances in the classroom. As a community we must start reducing energy consumption now! The power is in your hands.
10 Exposition or argument! Activity 1Title: Drugs in sport should be banned!Introduction: Include three pointsPerformance enhancing drugs give teams, or individuals, an unfair advantage.They could be harmful to the players.Damages the image of the game.Main body – Arguments:________________________________________________They could be harmful to the playersDamages the image of the gameRemember each new idea is a paragraph and your paragraphs should include two or three sentences which may include statistics, quotes, evidence and examples too support your argument.Conclusion: Summarises and restates the position of the writer and sums up the main arguments. It may include a request for action to be taken by the reader.It does NOT give any new information
11 DiscussionsDiscussion texts are written for the purpose of presenting different opinions, points of view, or perspectives on a specific issue.These may be:in favouragainstunsureIdeas and arguments from all sides are evaluated before a decision is made.Debate would make a great link to this idea
12 Discussions Discussion texts: can examine controversial topics use arguments directly related to the topicneed to be convincingsound authoritative
13 “This is what I am going to say…………..” DiscussionsStructureIntroductioninclude a statement to define the topic.give background information to the reader about the topic.show the different points of view to be examined.“This is what I am going to say…………..”Arguments provide the authors opinion, what’s the difference?Why do we give background and different points of view?
14 “Now I am saying it…………………” DiscussionsStructureBodyinclude a series of paragraphsinclude 2 or 3 paragraphs with arguments in favour and reasons or examples to support these ideasinclude 2 or 3 paragraphs with arguments against and reasons or examples to support these ideasuse researched, quoted or reported speechuse persuasive languageuse cohesive language to link ideas or to show change of opinion“Now I am saying it…………………”
15 “This is what I have just said…………” DiscussionsStructureConclusiongive a summary of arguments from both sides.evaluate which arguments are the most effective.may recommend one point of view over the other because of the arguments presented.“This is what I have just said…………”
16 DiscussionsUnlike an argument discussions present more than one side of an issue before coming to a position.N.B.Remember exposition writing requires the author to alreadyhave a position before they start.Discussions may use evidence from both sides of the issue to persuade the reader to form an opinion.Or simply highlight all sides of the argument so people can make informed choices.
17 Discussions Activity 2 Title Is TV bad for children? Introduction - Position statementIntroduces the issue and previews different opinions, points of view, or perspectives on a specific issue.TV watching for children is a hot topic. While some people believe TV is a bad influence encouraging violence, sexualising children and promoting sedentary lifestyles, others believe TV provides educational material, models good behaviour and promotes healthy choices through advertising.Main body – ArgumentsExpands and elaborates the points made in the position statement. To strengthen the argument the elaboration may include statistics, quotes, evidence and examples from all sides discussed in the position statement. This should include two or three paragraphs for and against the issue.*Remember each new idea is a new paragraph.ConclusionSummarises and restates the position of the writer and sums up the main arguments. It may include a request for action to be taken by the reader.It does NOT give any new information.Encourage all students to strengthen the position statement.Use readwritethink persuasion map here to support the debate. Differentiate the learners with the highest readiness to task to research both sides of the argument and officiate the debate.
19 ConjunctionsConjunctions are words that link ideas. They bring one idea or piece of information into some kind of relationship with another idea or piece of information. In this way, they help to create continuity or ‘flow’ in a text.
20 Conjunctions Conjunctions of addition and replacement additive conjunctions simply add more information to what is already there. Examples of additive conjunctions include:and, also, in addition, not only … but also, moreover, further, besides.ExampleVideo games have been shown to increase hand eye co-ordination. Furthermore, evidence suggests video games can enhance a child’s problem solving abilities.