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Presentation on Energy Efficiency

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1 Presentation on Energy Efficiency
and Conservation Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

2 Energy Efficiency And Conservation
In broad sense, Energy Efficiency means economising on the use of energy without adversely affecting economic growth and development. It includes improving the efficiency of energy extraction, Transmission And Distribution and increasing the productivity of energy use. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

3 Energy Efficiency And Conservation (contd..)
It is not merely a technological issue but it encompasses much broader economic and management issues. The cost effective of energy conservation/efficiency measures is well established as one unit of energy saved at the consumer end avoids nearly 2.5 to 3 times of capacity augmentation due to plant load factor, plant availability, auxiliary power consumption. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

4 Energy Conservation (contd.)
The energy intensity per unit Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is much higher in India(3.7 times from Japan, 1.5 times from USA) than many of the countries of the world leading to high wastage of energy, power shortage and uncompetitive product pricing hindering international trading. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

5 Energy Conservation and its importance
60% of resources consumed so far 85% of raw energy comes from non-renewable sources and hence not available for future generation Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

6 Energy Conservation (contd.)
To meet the growing demand, it has been assessed that additional generating capacity of 1 lakh MW has to be added by 2012 requiring an investment of Rs. 8,00,000 crore approximately. It is estimated that high energy saving potential in the country approximately to the tune of about 23% exists for the economy as a whole while in the electricity sector alone the energy saving potential is around 25000MW of installed capacity. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

7 Energy Conservation (contd.)
So Energy Efficiency/Conservation and Demand Side Management measures can reduce power demand and prune building up of additional generating capacity to the extent it can be conserved. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

8 Why Energy Efficiency (EE) ?
Negawatts win over Megawatts Economic perspective (National and/or Supplier) : EE (or Negawatts) are cheaper than Megawatts EE provides maximum system wide benefits EE reduces need for imports & scare resources EE mitigates risk from supply vulnerabilities Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

9 Why Energy Efficiency (EE) ? Contd..
Customer Perspective : Utilities come closer to customers, better control Supply quality and reliability improvements Lowers impact of tariff rationalisation / increase Societal Perspective : Environmental benefits (emissions and wastes) Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

10 Sector wise Energy Consumption
Type of Consumer Percentage of Consumption Agricultural 5 Industry 49 Transport 22 Residential 10 Others 14 Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

11 Energy Saving Potential
Sector Potential(%) Economy as a whole Up to 23 Agricultural Up to 30 Industrial Up to 25 Transport Up to 20 Domestic and Commercial Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

12 Energy Saving Potential contd..
Assessed potential of 25000MW energy saving Energy Efficiency / Conservation and Demand Side Management measures can reduce peak and average demand One unit saved avoids 2.5 to 3 times of fresh capacity addition Investment in Energy Efficiency / Energy Conservation is highly cost effective Can be achieved less than Rs.1 crore/MW Also avoids investment in fuel, mining, transportation etc. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

13 Energy Conservation Act
To tap the huge energy conservation potential Energy Conservation Act was …. Enacted in October 2001 Become effective from 1st March 2002 Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) operationalized from 1st March 2002. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

Standards and Labeling Evolve minimum energy consumption and performance standards for notified equipment & appliances. Prohibit manufacture and sale of equipment & appliances not conforming to standards. Introduce mandatory labeling to enable consumers to make informed choice. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

15 What are Standards and Labels?
Energy efficiency standards are sets of procedures and regulations that prescribe the energy performance of manufactured products, sometimes prohibiting the sale of products less energy-efficient than the minimum standard. LABELS Energy efficiency labels are informative labels affixed to manufactured products indicating a product’s energy performance in order to provide consumers with the data necessary for making informed purchases. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

16 Action Initiated ( Standards & Labeling)
Equipment /appliances approved for notification include : Refrigerators Room Air Conditioners (unitary) Electric Water Heater Electric Motors Agricultural Pump Sets Electric Lighting & Ballasts Industrial Fans & Blowers Air Compressors Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

17 Action Initiated ( Standards & Labeling) contd…
Discussions with manufacturers of Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, Agricultural Pump Sets and Motors Technical Committee constituted to fix criteria and procedure equipment testing Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

18 Action Initiated ( Standards & Labeling) contd…
Manufacturers agreed to : Conduct equipment testing under third party witness Provide technical basis for the label Evolve rating plan for the label Introduce labeling within two months Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

19 Energy Management Cell, WBSEB
Designated Consumer Schedule to the Act provides list of Designated Consumers Designated Consumers to : get energy audit by Accredited energy audit firms implement cost effective recommendations appoint or designate energy manager comply with energy consumption norms and standards By regulations BEE to prescribe; qualification and certification procedure for Energy Manager & Energy Auditors. accreditation procedure for Energy Audit firms. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

20 Action Initiated (Designated Consumers)
Governing Council of BEE approved To notify of cement paper and pulp and textile sectors as designated consumers To cover units with 5 MW connected load or annual tonnes of oil equivalent consumption National level certification examination and its syllabus for certification of energy managers and energy auditors Engaging NPC as the certifying agency To empanel 11 institutions for running certification course Procedure for temporary accreditation of energy auditors Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

21 Action Initiated (Designated Consumers)
Task force in cement, paper & pulp and textile sectors formed. Fertiliser, chemicals, petrochemicals and choler alkali under way Members to achieve the energy efficiency through best practices, benchmarking, energy audit etc. Industries motivated through National Energy Conservation Award scheme Industries being approached to take commitments Industries like INDAL, Rastriya Ispat Nigam Limited, NRC, Moral Overseas Ltd., BK Birla Group of Companies committed to reduce energy consumption Small group activities focused on Energy Conservation initiated Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

22 Energy Management Cell, WBSEB
Energy Conservation Building Codes (ECBC ) BEE to prepare guidelines on ECBC To be modified by States to suit local climatic conditions To be applicable to new buildings having connected load of 500 KW Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

23 Energy Conservation Fund
To set up Energy Conservation Fund for providing : Innovative financing Promotion of energy service companies Research & Development Demonstration Creation of testing facilities Awareness creation Energy Conservation Fund Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

24 Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)
Important Roles include: Implementation of provisions of Energy Conservation Act Quick coordination Policy research Promotion of energy efficiency Development of new financial instruments Development of ESCOS Awareness creation. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

25 Energy Management Cell, WBSEB
Self Regulation Section 17 provides power of inspection but Act enforcement through self-regulation Manufacturers agreed to Give energy consumption test results for labels Setup steering committee with BEE for prescribing criteria for Label design Standard setting Enforcement mechanism Designated consumers to publish certified energy consumption figures in the annual report Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

26 Energy Management Cell, WBSEB
MARKET MECHANISM Energy Efficiency investment is highly cost effective: Resultant energy saving pays back investment between 6 to 36 months. Huge market Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) willing to invest with performance guarantee and recover investment from energy savings – win-win situation. Requires policy support; demonstration; innovative financing like guarantee, insurance, venture capital; pro-active support by Banks, etc. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

27 Electricity Used for Lighting
Nearly 10% of the electricity is consumed for lighting in the residential & commercial building. This amounts to a connected load of approx. 11,000 MW and annual electricity consumption of 50 billion KWh. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

28 Energy Management Cell, WBSEB
CFL Example Watts Light Cost Life No of Units Lumens Rs. Hours hrs/day /Year Bulb CFL Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

29 Luminous Performance Characteristics of Commonly Used Luminaries
Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

30 Energy savings in lighting System
Make maximum use of natural light (North roof/translucent sheets/more windows and openings) Switch off when not required Modify lighting layout to meet the need Select light colours for interiors Provide timer switches / PV controls Provide lighting Transformer to operate at reduced voltage Install energy efficient lamps, luminaries and controls Clean North roof glass, translucent sheet and luminaries regularly Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

31 Energy Saving in Lighting
Separate lighting Transformer To isolate from power feeder To avoid voltage fluctuation problem Energy saving at optimum voltage Install Servo stabilizer if separate transformer is not feasible High frequency electronic ballast's(30khz) Energy savings 30 to 35% Less heat load into A/C room Metal halide in place of Mercury and SVL lamps CFT in place of incandescent lamps Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

32 Energy Management Cell, WBSEB
Energy Saving in Fan Fans are used extensively in summer months. Use of high efficiency fan motor and use of electronic regulator (in place of conventional resistance regulator) can lead to about 20% saving in energy. The fans with aerodynamic designs and improved impellers consume about 20% less energy but are 30% costlier as compared to conventional fans. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

33 Energy Saving in Refrigerator
The efficiency of refrigerators in India, is rather poor. A typical 165 ltr. Indian refrigerator consumes about 540 KWH per year. Whereas on the other hand the 200 ltr. Korean model consumes about 240 KWH per year. High efficiency refrigerator are not manufactured in India. This refrigerators use a different compressor design which are very sensitive to voltage of electric supply. Unless quality of electric supply is improved this refrigerators can not be improved in India. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

34 Energy Saving in Motors
The electric Motors form the heart of the industries, out of the total motors in operation 98% is Induction Motors. Induction Motors consumes 70% of the total Electrical Energy generated. Capacity of :: Motors α Torque α V2 Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

35 Energy Saving in Motors
Causes for Energy Loss in Induction Motors The Various causes of Energy Loss in Induction Motors are due to the following factors: Over sized Motors Rewound Motors Improper Voltage Less Efficient Motor – Driven Equipment Idle Run Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

36 Energy Saving in Motors
Over sized Induction Motor Sizing of Motors plays a vital Role in Energy Efficiency. It is very difficult to choose a right size of Motor in a single step application. In any industry while designing the capacity of motor for a particular application involves two/three stages. Over sizing of motor is very common in typical industry Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

37 Energy Saving in Motors
Over sized Induction Motor (contd.) The major reasons for over sizing of motors may be due to ::: Starting torque requirements Excess cushion & safety factors Adhoc decisions Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

38 Energy Saving in Motors
Rewound Motors Rewound Induction Motors are common in Indian Industries. Especially, in Textiles, Paper industries and Un-organised sectors such as small Flour mills, Lathe shop and Agricultural farms. Induction Motors are used even after more than four times rewound Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

39 Energy Saving in Motors
Rewound Motors (contd.) Reason for loss in efficiency Rewound Motors ::: Eddy Current loss – eddy current loss is proportional to the square of the thickness of the lamination At the time motor coil burning the temperature of the winding rises more than 400oC, this temperature will evaporate the burnish insulation between lamination of both rotor and stator this results in increase of eddy current loss Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

40 Energy Saving in Motors
Presence of carbon: the stator and rotor core is made up of thin stamping (0.28mm to 0.45mm). The stamping are insulated from each other by varnish insulation coating, which consists of hydrocarbon. Therefore while motor coil burns varnish also burns and evaporates. The resulting deposition of some unburned carbon between the stampings which deteriorates the magnetic property and hence the magnetic loss increases. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

41 Energy Saving in Motors
Further the presence of carbon results in early magnetic saturation and reduces the flux density of the stator and rotor cores for the same magnetisation current. Usually, the Wrought iron, and Cast iron have early magnetic saturation and poor magnetic property because of the high carbon content compared to Steel. Thus in rewound motor magnetic loss increases. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

42 Energy Saving in Motors
Improper Voltage The performance of any induction motor will be good, when the voltage/frequency ratio should be maintained constant. If a 380 Volt 50 Hz designed induction motor operated with 415V, 50Hz will lead to excess magnetisation loss. This will be the case in many of the important motor designed for other frequency and voltage than Indian frequency & voltage. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

43 Energy Saving in Motors
Case Study ::In a White Cement Plant The DG set is imported from Czechoslovakia as a package of entire system. The cooling system pump & motor are the part of the system. In Czechoslovakia, the motors are designed for 380 volts, 50 Hz supply. But the cooling tower pump motor(22KW) is operated with 415Volts, 50Hz supply, leading to excess magnetization losses and excess temperature rise and one of the motor has already burned out due to insulation failure. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

44 Energy Saving in Motors
Case Study :: Observations : Surface temperature measured :- 80 % loaded 415V rated motor: 50 – 60oC 80% loaded 380V rated motor : 72 – 76oC Estimated saving potential : 8 – 10% Recommendation: The existing 380V, 50Hz motor in the cooling water pump (4 nos.) was replaced with 415V, 50Hz energy efficient motor which has the annual savings of Rs /- Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

45 Energy Saving in Motors
Less Efficient Motor – Driven Equipment Earlier for variable speed, welding application etc., Motor Generator sets are used. This is the Energy Inefficient practice. This offers a good scope to reduce energy consumption by using the latest technology to meet the requirements For example the recent method to get accurate variable speed control can be achieved by using Thyristor drives which is the ideal replacement for Ward Leonard drive. Similarly Motor Generator set is used for welding application. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

46 Energy Saving in Motors
Presently few machines are driven by Ward Leonard drives for better speed control. From Energy Efficiency point of view Ward Leonard drives are inefficient and operating efficiency is only 70 to 80% for full load condition. The power measurements indicated that no load power consumption of the drive varies from 10 to 14%. The modern Thyristor drives with fine speed control is popular in Industry and its efficiency is around 90 to 98%. The no load power consumption is more or less negligible. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

47 Energy Saving in Motors
Idle Run In some of the industrial application, the auxiliaries equipment will run even main equipment is switched off. There is a possibility to switch off whenever possible by incorporating controls like interlocks and timer based controllers. This will reduce the idle running time and energy consumption. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

48 Energy Saving in Motors
Case Study : In a Rubber Industry :: Presently in Preformers, the Hydraulic drives are running continuously. The time study indicates around 5% of the time in a day the preformer hydraulic drive is running idle. There is a scope to reduce energy consumption during Lunch Break, Die Changing, Material Charging & Changing time. The Power Measurement Details are as follows : Minicrowe Preformer : KW Idle running Power cons: KW Crowe Preformer : KW Idle running Power cons: KW Recommendation: Recommend to interlock between the rubber cutter and hydraulic drive motor to reduce idle running during Lunch Break, Die Changing, Material Charging & Changing time. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

49 Demand Side Management
The total demand of an area deeps on varying depending on the time of the day and the season. The Load Factor is the ratio of Average Power to Peak Power. A high Load Factor means lower cost of generation. Every electric utility tries to improve the power factor to a value close to 1. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

50 Demand Side Management
1.0 1.0 Operating Cost Operating Cost 0.8 0.8 Relative Generation Cost Relative Generation Cost 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4 Fixed cost Fixed cost 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.0 Load Factor Load Factor Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

51 Demand Side Management
Load management is the concept of changing the consumer’s electricity use pattern. Load management has the purpose of improving the effect of utilisation of generating capacity and encouraging the best use of electricity by all consumers of different categories. Moreover the forced outages are reduced and service reliability is improved. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

52 Demand Side Management
By controlling the load at the consumer premises the load curve can be flattened. In this way the power generation by the low efficiency generation units can be minimised and forced outages are avoided. The peak load reduction can make it possible to postponed the building of new power stations. In this way considerable saving can be achieved. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

53 Energy Conservation in Distribution (HVDS)
Reduction of line losses by replacing smaller number of larger transformers with larger number of smaller transformers located nearer to loads and thus reducing the length of LT lines. Such an arrangement will result in better voltages, less outages, increased transformer life, easier replacement of failed transformers and fewer consumers are affected by transformer failure. Improvement of power factor to 0.9 through LV switched capacitor panels on all transformers supplying to pump-sets. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

54 Smaller no. of Large Transformer Vs Larger no. of Small Transformer
11KV Line Small DT Large Transformer Well Small DT Small DT LT Line Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

55 Energy Conservation in Distribution Transformers
All transformers feeding pump loads to be provided with remote controlled LV circuit breakers to be operated in rotation instead of switching off 11KV lines. Use of energy-efficient transformers (amorphous-core transformers) to reduce no-load losses. Typical core-loss savings are illustrated below: Transformer Capacity Losses with silicon steel Losses with amorphous metal 25KVA 100W 25W 63KVA 180W 45W 100KVA 260W 60W Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

56 Improvement of System Performance with improvement in Capacity Factor
Generation Transmission and Distribution End-Use Capacity Factor 0.4 T&D Losses 25% End Conversion Losses 66.7% 3Kwh 1 Kwh 4 Kwh I T&D Losses 15% End Conversion Losses 50% Capacity Factor 0.6 1Kwh 2Kwh 2.3 Kwh II Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

57 Network Planning Through GIS (Geographical Information System)
Computer-aided network planning to minimise losses and maximise system efficiency Accurate measurement of energy consumed is necessary for energy audit to arrive at energy conservation measures. Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

58 Need Base Energy Management
In power sector there is a distinct difference between “demand and need” Consumers of electric power could be classified into five broad categories. Industrial users Agricultural sector Commercial organisation Domestic Essential services Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

59 Need Base Energy Management
A Need based energy management would Identify the needs of various consumers Forecast the generation requirement based on the need Plan power generation as per forecast Lay down a suitable transmission and distribution network Regulate distribution as per need Monitor matching of need with supply Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

60 Energy Management Cell, WBSEB
Advantages of NBEM It ensures high reliability of supply to consumers meeting the specific demand effectively for period of actual requirement The system losses can be substantially reduced since line and equipment not get overloaded at any point of time The voltage profile at all level is improved thus safeguarding the customers equipment from losing their efficiency at low voltage The scheme facilitates the adoption of energy conservation and energy audit policy Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

61 Energy Management Cell, WBSEB
Thank You Energy Management Cell, WBSEB

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