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TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT-2004 Presented by :- AJAY KUMAR DAS (EE200127345) POWER FACTOR IN ELECTRICAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT Prepared by: Ajay Kumar Das EE200127345.

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Presentation on theme: "TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT-2004 Presented by :- AJAY KUMAR DAS (EE200127345) POWER FACTOR IN ELECTRICAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT Prepared by: Ajay Kumar Das EE200127345."— Presentation transcript:

1 TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT-2004 Presented by :- AJAY KUMAR DAS (EE ) POWER FACTOR IN ELECTRICAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT Prepared by: Ajay Kumar Das EE Electrical & Electronics Under the guidance of: S.Mohanty

2 TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT-2004 Presented by :- AJAY KUMAR DAS (EE ) INTRODUCTION 1.Power factor is the percentage of electricity that is being used to do useful work 2.power factor= active power/apparent power 3.Apparent power has two components: Productive power Reactive power

3 TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT-2004 Presented by :- AJAY KUMAR DAS (EE ) Any industrial process using electric motors (to drive pumps, fans, conveyors, refrigeration plant etc.) introduces inefficiencies into the electricity supply network by drawing additional currents, called "inductive reactive currents". Typical Utility Billing Structure are as follows: 1. 90% Billing Structure % KVA + 100% KW Billing Structure UNDERSTANDING POWER FACTOR

4 TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT-2004 Presented by :- AJAY KUMAR DAS (EE ) Indirect costs of low power factor Direct costs of low power factor Loss in distribution capacity i.Larger Investment ii.Transformers iii.Large size conductors DISADVANTAGES OF LOW POWER FACTOR

5 TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT-2004 Presented by :- AJAY KUMAR DAS (EE )

6 TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT-2004 Presented by :- AJAY KUMAR DAS (EE ) BENEFITS OF POWER FACTOR CORRECTION Benefit 1 - Reduce Utility Power Bills Benefit 2 - Increase System Capacity Benefit 3 - Improve System Operating Characteristics (Gain Voltage) Benefit 4 - Improve System Operating Characteristics (Reduce Line Losses)

7 TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT-2004 Presented by :- AJAY KUMAR DAS (EE ) EQUIPMENTS CREATING POOR POWER FACTOR Lighting Incandescent Lamps Fluorescent Lamps Mercury Vapor Lamps Distribution Transformer Induction Motors Synchronous Motors

8 TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT-2004 Presented by :- AJAY KUMAR DAS (EE ) Industrial Heating Welding What causes low power factor? i.Equipment Design ii.Operating Conditions iii.Line voltage

9 TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT-2004 Presented by :- AJAY KUMAR DAS (EE ) MEASUREMENT OF POWER FACTOR

10 TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT-2004 Presented by :- AJAY KUMAR DAS (EE ) POWER FACTOR CORRECTION Power factor correction can be made in two ways: Reduce the amount of reactive energy Compensate artificially for the consumption of reactive energy with power factor capacitor Two type of equipment are available for power factor correction: Rotary Equipment: Phase advancers, synchronous motors and synchronous condensers

11 TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT-2004 Presented by :- AJAY KUMAR DAS (EE )

12 TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT-2004 Presented by :- AJAY KUMAR DAS (EE ) Power factor correction is achieved by the addition of capacitors in parallel with the connected motor circuits and can be applied at the starter, or applied at the switchboard or distribution panel. Two types of correction using capacitors Static correction Bulk correction

13 TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT-2004 Presented by :- AJAY KUMAR DAS (EE ) AUTOMATIC SWITCHING OF CAPACITORS

14 TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT-2004 Presented by :- AJAY KUMAR DAS (EE ) Linear loads Non-linear loads The Cause The Effect Harmonics and Power Factor Capacitors The Options to Reduce Harmonics Harmonic Limits in Electric Power Systems HARMONIC DISTORTION

15 TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT-2004 Presented by :- AJAY KUMAR DAS (EE ) CONCLUSION Lastly after the completion of my project, I conclude that improvement of power factor is necessary in both consumer and supplier point of view. In some industries penalty is charged due to maintenance of low power factor. In some industries where power consumed by the load is low, high ratings of equipments are required. SVC Technologies and Synchronous Generator are used for the improvement of power factor.

16 TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT-2004 Presented by :- AJAY KUMAR DAS (EE )


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