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21st Century Cooling for Dry Climates

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Presentation on theme: "21st Century Cooling for Dry Climates"— Presentation transcript:

1 21st Century Cooling for Dry Climates
For the Napa Valley Wine Technical Group Dick Bourne, WCEC Assoc. Director January 22, 2009

2 Electricity: Cooling is the Culprit
July peak demand is 35% above January Cooling causes electricity peaks 7% Load Factor for Residential 22% Load Factor for Non-Residential Cooling peak reducers - best new peaking plants

3 Western Climates: Issues = Opportunities
Large Diurnal Temperature Swings Issue – Poor Load Factor Opportunity – Thermal Storage Low Outdoor Humidity Issue – Non-Optimized Equipment Opportunity – Evaporation for Cooling, Radiant Cooling

4 WCEC: Who We Are Part of the Energy Efficiency Center at University of California, Davis Launched April 2007 Current staff: Mark Modera, Director Dick Bourne, Associate Director Marshall Hunt, Programs Director Kristin Heinemeier, Senior Engineer Seven Mechanical Engineering Students

5 WCEC: Who We Are Affiliate Structure Utilities Manufacturers
PG&E, SCE, SMUD, SEMPRA Manufacturers Delphi, Ice Energy, ICI, Lennox, Munters, NovaTorque, Seeley Intl., Speakman, Thermal Flow, Trane, Viega, VRTX Contracting/Design Firms Beutler, Davis Energy Group, Timmons Design Engineers State Agencies CEC, DGS Retailers Wal-Mart, Target

6 WCEC Goals By 2030, reduce cooling demand and energy use from 2007 baseline New buildings Zero cooling peak demand 50% reduction in cooling energy use Existing buildings 50% reduction in cooling peak demand 25% reduction in cooling energy use

7 What We Do Publicize cooling technologies optimized for hot, dry west
Support affiliate alliances and partnerships Address market impediments (e.g. codes and standards) Help bridge commercialization “valley of death” Emerging technology demonstrations Research and development Identify, conduct and support key R&D Technology development Laboratory and field testing Modeling and analysis Outreach activities Catalog of energy-efficient cooling systems Website, newsletters, presentations, publications Education – university and professional

8 Current WCEC Activities
Funded Projects CEC - PIER Advanced Cooling Support Program CIEE – State-building technology demonstrations (SDSU and UCSD lab sash project) BERG – Improving the Cost Effectiveness of Radiant Floor Cooling Systems SEMPRA- Energy Performance of Hotel Controls (with CLTC) SMUD –Hybrid OASys Field Test BERG at LBNL – Exhaust Duct Leakage Diagnosis in Multi-Family Buildings EPRI – SEER Review, Status and Recommendations LANEY COLLEGE/NSF – HVAC training SCE Water Management for Indirect and Indirect-Direct Evaporative Air Conditioning Water Use by AquaChill evaporative condenser

9 Current WCEC Activities
Projects in Process CEC – Three-Year WCEC Research Support DOE – Development of lab tests for annual savings predictions SEMPRA/PG&E/SCE – Statewide Initiatives (Evaporative Cooling, Hot Dry AC, Fault Detection/Diagnostics) Newly-Funded PIER Projects Radiant Cooling for Residences Non-Residential Fault Detection Diagnostics

10 Current WCEC Activities
Current Key Activities Western Cooling Challenge – announced 6/5/08 Water Initiative – recent ASHRAE presentation DOE SEER update Current Technologies of Interest Building-Integrated Cooling Swimming-Pool Heating WicKool Dedicated Outdoor Air Systems

11 WCEC Technology Portfolio
Most technologies appropriate for new and retrofit Rooftop units Evaporative cooling technologies Hybrid evaporative/vapor-compression equipment Water-cooled condensers Swimming-pool-based air conditioners Thermal distribution performance Night-sky radiative cooling Some opportunities unique to new construction: Low-cost chilled water storage Radiant floor cooling

12 Example Technology: DualCool
Accessory system for RTUs Pre-cools condenser and ventilation air DOES NOT add moisture to indoors 25-30% energy and demand savings SYSTEM SCHEMATIC A - High quality condenser air pre-cooler B - Pump & copper supply/return piping C - Ventilation air precooling coil D - Controls

13 Example Technology: Roll-Out Radiant Floor
Prior cost $6-7/ft2 Rollout cost ~$2/ft2 Full-scale installation at Wal-Mart store

14 Example Technology: Radiant Floor Benefits
Reduces latent cooling and blower energy Facilitates non-compressor cooling Projected savings 60-65% Projected demand reduction 45%+

15 Example Thermal Storage Technology
Residential/Commercial Swimming Pools Night-time cooling (non-refrigerative) makes pool water available for day-time low-temperature heat rejection 20-40oF reduction in refrigerant condensing temperature 20-50% improvement in EER – higher at peak conditions Rejected heat serves useful function Eliminates/reduces gas consumption for pool heating

16 WCEC Market Activities
Demonstrations Integrated retrofits for strip malls Technology demonstrations on state-owned buildings Policy and Market Drivers Western Cooling Challenge Hot, Dry Air Conditioners Water Initiative Water management for evaporative air conditioning DOE SEER regional standards Lab tests for annual savings predictions

17 Western Cooling Challenge
Western Cooling Challenge Target Market: Rooftop Units (RTUs) with 3 – 30 ton capacity (>500-unit production capacity) RTUs cool 70% of non-residential floor space in the Western US Target Performance: 40% reduction in energy use and peak electricity demand Reward Structure: MOUs w CA IOUs and SMUD for incentive programs – Retailer program sponsorship

18 Western Cooling Challenge: Schedule
Western Cooling Challenge: Schedule January 2009 Laboratory testing of WCC entries can begin June Field testing of WCC entries can begin January 2010 Shipments of WCC-compliant products can begin  

19 New Indirect Heat Exchangers
Coolerado Unique multi-stage indirect design 90%+ effectiveness, balanced flow 250 cfm per module, 10” high, 20” long, 19” wide Used in Coolerado & Desert Cool Aire prototypes

20 New Indirect Heat Exchangers
HyPak High-speed production process 80%+ effective in lab test Delivered 4.3 tons for 2’ width Many other applications

21 Example Market Issue: Water Initiative
Impediments to water-based cooling On-site water use Equipment maintenance Successful water-based systems for buildings Cooling towers Pressurized domestic water Pools Irrigation Water conservation Techniques exist Not optimized for small-scale evaporative cooling

22 Evaporative Cooling: Water Use Metrics
Cooling potential = mass of water * heat of vaporization Potentially as low as 1.37 gallons/ton-hr Maintenance Water Use Rule of Thumb: 2/3 evaporation, 1/3 maintenance Large Impact of Water Quality Indirect Water Consumption for Electricity Generation Enormous range of values gal/KWh

23 Water Use for Condenser-Air Pre-Cooling
Analysis Technique Calculate change in EER with respect to condenser air temperature Relatively linear 1-2% change per oF Calculate condenser temperature change per unit of water evaporated Use EER change to calculate extra cooling delivered for the same electricity consumed

24 Example Market Issue: Water Issue Resolution
Roles for the WCEC provide “institutional memory” on water issues water-use yardsticks access large cadre of water scientists at UCD pursue water conservation solutions save rain runoff for cooling irrigate w/flushed water night-sky water cooling

25 Wine Industry Opportunities
Evaporative condensing and pre-cooling Pre-cooled ventilation air (e.g. Fetzer) Thermal storage (wine is ideal!) Radiant cooling to reduce blower power (may need desiccants in high humidity areas) CHP (e.g. Vineyard 29) Others?

26 WCEC Mission Summary “Partner with stakeholders to identify technologies, conduct research and demonstrations, disseminate information, and implement programs that reduce cooling-system electrical demand and energy consumption in the Western United States.” Mark Modera

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