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Society of Automotive Engineers Improved Mobile Air Conditioning Cooperative Research Program Improved HFC-134a Refrigerant Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "Society of Automotive Engineers Improved Mobile Air Conditioning Cooperative Research Program Improved HFC-134a Refrigerant Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Society of Automotive Engineers Improved Mobile Air Conditioning Cooperative Research Program Improved HFC-134a Refrigerant Systems

2 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP2 Improved Mobile Air Conditioning (IMAC) Announced April 22, 2004 A comprehensive industry-government cooperative research program to responsibly manage all aspects of lifetime vehicle air conditioner environmental performance –Develop and demonstrate improved vehicle air conditioners using HFC-134a refrigerant –Add to customer value –Improve recovery and recycling of refrigerant during service and vehicle end-of-life disposal Participants include international automobile and air conditioner system manufacturers, component and equipment suppliers, refrigerant manufacturers, MAC service providers and the Environmental Protection Agency

3 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP3 Current 27 Corporate Sponsors Arkema (Autofina) Audi Behr BMW DaimlerChrysler Delphi Denso DuPont Ford Fujikoki General Motors Goodyear Honeywell Ineous Fluor Japan Fluor Mfg Assoc Manuli Modine Nissan Parker Hannifin Sanden Schrader-Bridgeport Solvay TI Automotive Toyota Trelleborg Viking Plastics Visteon

4 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP4 Project Goals IMAC Core Team 1 50% Leakage Reduction Team 3 30% Load Reduction Team 2 30% Efficiency Improvement Demonstration Vehicles 2005/2006 Team 4 Containment During Service & Disposal

5 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP5 IMAC Program Objectives Reduce direct HFC-134a refrigerant emissions that leak from MACs Reduce indirect emissions, which are emissions related to the burning of fuel needed to power the air conditioner Reduce any other emissions during the manufacture, installation, operation, servicing and disposal of the system Provide a directly comparative engineering evaluation –Existing and improved technologies –Vehicle and system design –Servicing of systems

6 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP6 Project Organization Tier One LeakageEfficiency Overall Project Management Financial Oversight Funding strategy Educate management Members: Tier 1 suppliers Tier 2 suppliers OEMs MACS and Members EPA Refrigerant Suppliers Other Members: OEMs Tier 1 suppliers NREL EPA Universitys Other Overall Technical Leadership LCA & Cost Benefit Analysis Sub-group Coordination OEM CORE GROUP OEM Advisors GM Ford D-C To advise in case of proprietary technologies SAE Industry Members: OEMs Tier 1 suppliers NREL Universitys Other Members: OEMs Tier 1 suppliers EPA MACS and members Other Vehicle LoadService Tier Two

7 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP7 IMAC Project Teams Reduction in refrigerant losses at service Load Reduction Improved comfort Improved Efficiency Reduction in Leakage Goals: Others: Tier1s: 2345 OEMs: Number of Team Members: Service refrigerant loss Reduction Vehicle Thermal Load Reduction AC System Efficiency Improvement Refrigerant Leakage Reduction Team Name: Team4Team3Team2Team1

8 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP8 Team 1 Refrigerant Leakage Reduction Goal: –Reduce HFC-134a Mobile Air Conditioning System refrigerant direct emissions by 50%

9 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP9 Team 1 Progress to Date Identified 4 current production vehicles to baseline for refrigerant leakage rate –Dodge Caravan (dual system) –Ford F150 –Toyota Camry –GM W Car

10 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP10 Team 1 Progress to Date Evaluated mini-shed tests to establish refrigerant system direct emissions Evaluating assembly plant noise factors regarding assembly of system components free of contamination, damage, etc.

11 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP11 Team Plan Develop SAE Standard for component and system mini-shed test Develop SAE Standard for reclaim procedure to determine actual vehicle charge level Evaluate new low emissions technologies per standard

12 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP12 Team 1 Description of Technologies Improved crimps Improved fittings Compressor shaft seal and body seals Hose permeation Material integrity-tubing Reduced number of joints TXV Transducer/switches Service valves/caps Manufacturing/Assembly specifications Leakage Test Procedure Robust Manufacturing/Assembly Procedures

13 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP13 Team 2 System Efficiency Goal: –Improve system COP by 30% over the enhanced R134a system that was demonstrated in the SAE Phase 1 Alternative Refrigerant Cooperative Research Program (ARCRP) –Demonstrate equivalent performance

14 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP14 Team 2 Deliverables Demonstrate COP improvement on a System Test Stand Demonstrate equal performance in a Vehicle Tunnel SAE J Standard for Measurement of System COP using the System Test Stand Approach SAE J Standard for Annualized Climate Calculation of System Power Loss Relative Cost / Benefit Analysis: –Cost will be relative on a 1-10 scale –Benefit will be COP improvement over the enhanced R134a ARCRP system

15 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP15 Team Plans System Stand: –Improved sub-cooling control (condenser) –Improved superheat control (evaporator) –Improved compressor efficiency –Internal (suction/liquid) heat exchangers Vehicle: –Sub-cooling and superheat algorithm development –A/C performance demonstration

16 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP16 Team Plans System Stand: –Next generation condensers (pending availability) –Next generation evaporators (pending availability) –Alternative compressor designs (pending availability) –Best of the Best combination Vehicle: –Continue system development –A/C performance demonstration Develop J Standards Develop Cost/Benefit Matrix

17 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP17 Team 2 Progress to Date Condenser sub-cooling control study shows potential for 20-30% improved COP at low loads (achieving control in a vehicle system is an open issue) Evaporator superheat control study shows potential for 20% improved COP at low loads Improved efficiency compressor study shows potential for 15% improved COP (climate weighted) Achieving the 30% improvement goal is promising but the individual effects may not be additive

18 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP18 Team 3 Vehicle Load Reduction Goal: –Demonstrate vehicle level technologies that reduce the cooling load by 30%

19 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP19 Team 3 Progress to Date Tested the impact of various technologies on soak temperatures –Power ventilation device –Solar reflective glazing –Lightweight insulation –Sunscreen for windshield Plan to test additional technologies –Lightweight seats –Solar reflective paints Developing a computer model at the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) to estimate a technologys impact on time to comfort and power consumption

20 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP20 NREL vehicle Model CAD Thermal Comfort Vehicle Glazing Solar Radiation Cabin Thermal/Fluid Air Conditioning Fuel Economy & Emissions Cooling Capacity & A/C Power Occupant Thermal Comfort Front-End Air Flow Accumulator / Dryer Electric-DrivenCompressor Condenser Expansion Device (Orifice Tube) Evaporator Evaporator Air Flow (Outside Air or Recirc.) MOTOR AlternatorGenerator T amb QevapQsolar T air T mass Wcomp Cond

21 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP21 Team 3 Deliverables Procedure for evaluation of technology Develop a ranking of approximate cost/benefits for various technologies Evaluation of technologies in laboratory and field Demonstration vehicle for 2006 Phoenix Meeting Communication and education materials

22 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP22 Team 4 Reduction in Refrigerant Loss During Servicing Goals: –Evaluate and Recommend Improvements for Service Tools, Equipment (New or Revised Standards) and Service Procedures –Identify, Quantify and Propose Remedies for Refrigerant Losses at Service, Vehicle End of Life –Quantify and Address Losses from One-Way Refrigerant Containers –Produce Educational Materials and Conduct Outreach to Reduce Refrigerant Emissions

23 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP23 Team Four – Service Progress & Plans 1.Leak detection tools, procedures –Writing standards for next generation of tools –Detection at 4 grams per joint/year (Current standard 14 grams) –Probe distance 3/8 (now ¼) –Real world testing for standard

24 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP24 Team Four – Service Progress & Plans 2.Service equipment, procedures –Testing has shown that current recovery equipment/procedures leaves refrigerant in system –Developing standard for next generation of equipment –Different recovery procedures needed for different types of systems

25 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP25 Team Four – Service Progress & Plans 3. Flexible coupled hose assemblies –Conduct lab testing to evaluate field coupled assemblies for leakage –Develop a cost-effective means of field evaluation of assemblies

26 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP26 Team Four – Service Progress & Plans 4.Analytical tool to evaluate service procedures –SAE Service Technology Group Activity Focus on leak detection; diagnosis 5. Refrigerant mass balance –Data collection to identify and quantify the sources of all lifetime R-134a emissions

27 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP27 Team Four – Service Progress & Plans 6. Vehicle end of life –Partnership with Automotive Recyclers Association –Raise awareness in this sector –Develop strategies to improve vehicle EOL refrigerant recovery

28 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP28 Actual/Forecast Funding vs. Original Plans Original 2004 announcement: over $3 million in cash and in-kind contributions Program on track to surpass initial funding plan $ 000sEPA Funds Industry Funds In-Kind Industry Total CY CY ,830 CY ?560?900+1,830 Total7401,1801,800$3,720

29 August 18, 2005IMAC CRP29 Status After One Year All 4 teams are operational and making progress Industry participation is high The program is on track to meet scope, funding and technical targets

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