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Improved HFC-134a Refrigerant Systems

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Presentation on theme: "Improved HFC-134a Refrigerant Systems"— Presentation transcript:

1 Improved HFC-134a Refrigerant Systems
Society of Automotive Engineers Improved Mobile Air Conditioning Cooperative Research Program Improved HFC-134a Refrigerant Systems

2 Improved Mobile Air Conditioning (IMAC)
Announced April 22, 2004 A comprehensive industry-government cooperative research program to responsibly manage all aspects of lifetime vehicle air conditioner environmental performance Develop and demonstrate improved vehicle air conditioners using HFC-134a refrigerant Add to customer value Improve recovery and recycling of refrigerant during service and vehicle end-of-life disposal Participants include international automobile and air conditioner system manufacturers, component and equipment suppliers, refrigerant manufacturers, MAC service providers and the Environmental Protection Agency August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

3 Current 27 Corporate Sponsors
Ineous Fluor Japan Fluor Mfg Assoc Manuli Modine Nissan Parker Hannifin Sanden Schrader-Bridgeport Solvay TI Automotive Toyota Trelleborg Viking Plastics Visteon Arkema (Autofina) Audi Behr   BMW DaimlerChrysler   Delphi  Denso  DuPont  Ford   Fujikoki General Motors Goodyear Honeywell   August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

4 Demonstration Vehicles
Project Goals Team 4 Containment During Service & Disposal Team 1 50% Leakage Reduction IMAC Core Team 2 30% Efficiency Improvement Demonstration Vehicles 2005/2006 Team 3 30% Load Reduction August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

5 IMAC Program Objectives
Reduce “direct” HFC-134a refrigerant emissions that leak from MACs Reduce “indirect emissions”, which are emissions related to the burning of fuel needed to power the air conditioner Reduce any other emissions during the manufacture, installation, operation, servicing and disposal of the system Provide a directly comparative engineering evaluation Existing and improved technologies Vehicle and system design Servicing of systems August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

6 Project Organization CORE GROUP Tier One Tier Two OEM Industry
Overall Project Management Financial Oversight Funding strategy Educate management CORE GROUP Tier One Tier Two OEM Industry SAE Leakage Efficiency Vehicle Load Service Members: Tier 1 suppliers Tier 2 suppliers OEM’s MACS and Members EPA Refrigerant Suppliers Other Members: OEM’s Tier 1 suppliers NREL EPA University’s Other Members: OEM’s Tier 1 suppliers NREL University’s Other Members: OEM’s Tier 1 suppliers EPA MACS and members Other Overall Technical Leadership LCA & Cost Benefit Analysis Sub-group Coordination OEM Advisors GM Ford D-C To advise in case of proprietary technologies August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

7 IMAC Project Teams 16 3 4 6 7 1 8 13 2 5 25 24 Team4 Team3 Team2 Team1
Reduction in refrigerant losses at service Load Reduction Improved comfort Improved Efficiency Reduction in Leakage Goals: 16 3 4 6 Others: 7 1 8 13 Tier1’s: 2 5 OEM’s: 25 24 Number of Team Members: Service refrigerant loss Reduction Vehicle Thermal Load Reduction AC System Efficiency Improvement Refrigerant Leakage Reduction Team Name: Team4 Team3 Team2 Team1 August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

8 Team 1 Refrigerant Leakage Reduction
Goal: Reduce HFC-134a Mobile Air Conditioning System refrigerant direct emissions by 50% August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

9 Team 1 Progress to Date Identified 4 current production vehicles to baseline for refrigerant leakage rate Dodge Caravan (dual system) Ford F150 Toyota Camry GM W Car August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

10 Team 1 Progress to Date Evaluated mini-shed tests to establish refrigerant system direct emissions Evaluating assembly plant “noise factors” regarding assembly of system components free of contamination, damage, etc. August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

11 Team Plan Develop SAE Standard for component and system mini-shed test · Develop SAE Standard for reclaim procedure to determine actual vehicle charge level Evaluate new low emissions technologies per standard August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

12 Team 1 Description of Technologies
Improved crimps Improved fittings Compressor shaft seal and body seals Hose permeation Material integrity-tubing Reduced number of joints TXV Transducer/switches Service valves/caps Manufacturing/Assembly specifications Leakage Test Procedure Robust Manufacturing/Assembly Procedures August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

13 Team 2 System Efficiency
Goal: Improve system COP by 30% over the enhanced R134a system that was demonstrated in the SAE Phase 1 Alternative Refrigerant Cooperative Research Program (ARCRP) Demonstrate equivalent performance August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

14 Team 2 Deliverables Demonstrate COP improvement on a System Test Stand
Demonstrate equal performance in a Vehicle Tunnel SAE J Standard for Measurement of System COP using the System Test Stand Approach SAE J Standard for Annualized Climate Calculation of System Power Loss Relative Cost / Benefit Analysis: Cost will be relative on a 1-10 scale Benefit will be COP improvement over the enhanced R134a ARCRP system August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

15 Team 2 2005 Plans System Stand:
Improved sub-cooling control (condenser) Improved superheat control (evaporator) Improved compressor efficiency Internal (suction/liquid) heat exchangers Vehicle: Sub-cooling and superheat algorithm development A/C performance demonstration August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

16 Team 2 2006 Plans System Stand:
Next generation condensers (pending availability) Next generation evaporators (pending availability) Alternative compressor designs (pending availability) “Best of the Best” combination Vehicle: Continue system development A/C performance demonstration Develop J Standards Develop Cost/Benefit Matrix August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

17 Team 2 Progress to Date Condenser sub-cooling control study shows potential for 20-30% improved COP at low loads (achieving control in a vehicle system is an open issue) Evaporator superheat control study shows potential for 20% improved COP at low loads Improved efficiency compressor study shows potential for 15% improved COP (climate weighted) Achieving the 30% improvement goal is promising but the individual effects may not be additive August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

18 Team 3 Vehicle Load Reduction
Goal: Demonstrate vehicle level technologies that reduce the cooling load by 30% August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

19 Team 3 Progress to Date Tested the impact of various technologies on soak temperatures Power ventilation device Solar reflective glazing Lightweight insulation Sunscreen for windshield Plan to test additional technologies Lightweight seats Solar reflective paints Developing a computer model at the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) to estimate a technology’s impact on time to comfort and power consumption August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

20 NREL vehicle Model CAD Solar Radiation Glazing Air Cabin Conditioning
Tamb Qevap Qsolar Tair Tmass Wcomp Cond Solar Radiation Glazing Air Conditioning Cabin Thermal/Fluid Front-End Air Flow Accumulator / Dryer Electric-Driven Compressor Condenser Expansion Device (Orifice Tube) Evaporator Evaporator Air Flow (Outside Air or Recirc.) MOTOR Alternator Generator Thermal Comfort Vehicle Fuel Economy & Emissions Cooling Capacity & A/C Power Occupant Thermal Comfort August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

21 Team 3 Deliverables Procedure for evaluation of technology
Develop a ranking of approximate cost/benefits for various technologies Evaluation of technologies in laboratory and field · Demonstration vehicle for 2006 Phoenix Meeting · Communication and education materials August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

22 Team 4 Reduction in Refrigerant Loss During Servicing
Goals: Evaluate and Recommend Improvements for Service Tools, Equipment (New or Revised Standards) and Service Procedures Identify, Quantify and Propose Remedies for Refrigerant Losses at Service, Vehicle End of Life Quantify and Address Losses from One-Way Refrigerant Containers Produce Educational Materials and Conduct Outreach to Reduce Refrigerant Emissions August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

23 Team Four – Service Progress & Plans
Leak detection tools, procedures Writing standards for next generation of tools Detection at 4 grams per joint/year (Current standard 14 grams) Probe distance 3/8” (now ¼”) ‘Real world’ testing for standard August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

24 Team Four – Service Progress & Plans
Service equipment, procedures Testing has shown that current recovery equipment/procedures leaves refrigerant in system Developing standard for next generation of equipment Different recovery procedures needed for different types of systems August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

25 Team Four – Service Progress & Plans
3. Flexible coupled hose assemblies Conduct lab testing to evaluate field coupled assemblies for leakage Develop a cost-effective means of field evaluation of assemblies August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

26 Team Four – Service Progress & Plans
Analytical tool to evaluate service procedures SAE Service Technology Group Activity Focus on leak detection; diagnosis 5. Refrigerant mass balance Data collection to identify and quantify the sources of all lifetime R-134a emissions August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

27 Team Four – Service Progress & Plans
6. Vehicle end of life Partnership with Automotive Recyclers Association Raise awareness in this sector Develop strategies to improve vehicle EOL refrigerant recovery August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

28 Actual/Forecast Funding vs. Original Plans
Original 2004 announcement: “over $3 million in cash and in-kind contributions” Program on track to surpass initial funding plan $ 000’s EPA Funds Industry In-Kind Industry Total CY 2004 60 CY 2005 370 560 900+ 1,830 CY 2006 370? 560? 740 1,180 1,800 $3,720 August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

29 Status After One Year All 4 teams are operational and making progress
Industry participation is high The program is on track to meet scope, funding and technical targets August 18, 2005 IMAC CRP

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