4 TenderingFirst of all “Authority / Client” invites tender proposal based on initial survey or feasibility report done by consultants hired by the authority.Types of Contracts:There are different types of contracts for highway works, out of which any one chosen by the client based on feasibility report. Various types of contracts are as under:EPC Contract : EPC (Engineering, Procurement & Construction) contracts are in which the contractor execute the work as per specifications with own procured materials and claims periodically bills to the clients for his work done as per item rate BOQ.After completing the project there is the provision of maintenance period for which the project should be maintained by the contractor with or without any cost as described in the agreement.
5 TenderingBOT (Toll) / DBFOT Contract : DBFOT (Design, Built, Finance, Operate and Transfer) contracts are in which the contractor called concessionaire which may be the SPV (Special Purpose Vehicle) who is responsible forDesign the work as per specification & contract normally the concessionaire engaged design consultant for this purpose.Execute the work as per specifications & design normally the concessionaire choose the EPC contractor for the execution. It may be his own subsidiary or any other company which execute the work as per EPC contract.Arrange the Finance for the project. Detail financing elaborated further.Contd………
6 TenderingBOT / DBFOT Contract Contd…..Operate & collect the toll for the stipulated concession period (it may be 10 to 30 years as per contract) and recover his expenses with interest and after that his profit. Within this period the concessionaire also responsible for the maintenance of the road.After completion of concession period the highway stretch will be transferred to authority / client.
7 TenderingBOT (Annuity)/ DBFOT Contract : All the procedures are same as described for BOT (Toll) the only difference is that instead of toll collection the authority disbursed fixed Annual Amount upto the concession period as per the agreement (2 installments per year).This type of contract awarded where traffic volume is less & toll collection is not viable.
8 TenderingOPRC Contract : Output and Performance-based Road Contracts is the new contract type mainly used for the world bank projects. This is same as EPC contract but the difference is the EPC contract has an itemized BOQ and its rate and OPRC has lump-sum deliverable item based rate. Also for this type of project first step is for financial bid and second is for technical bid which can be qualify by only the contractor who have given good output and better performance in their previous works.
9 Execution cycle for a EPC Contract TenderingExecution cycle for a EPC ContractSite Visit & Cost EstimationPre- qualificationProject AwardedProposal of BidFinancial BidLetter of Acceptance (LOA)Execution of ProjectSigning of AgreementPre-construction ActivitiesProject PlanningWork ExecutionProject Completion & HandoverPeriodic BillingFinishing WorksFinal Bill
10 Execution cycle for a BOT(Toll)/DBFOT Contract TenderingExecution cycle for a BOT(Toll)/DBFOT ContractSite Visit & Cost EstimationPre- qualificationTraffic Survey & ForecastFinancial ModelProposal of BidLetter of Acceptance (LOA)Project AwardedSigning of AgreementFinancial CloserFinancial BidToll Collection & Maintenance for entire Concession PeriodProject Completion & Commercial OperationAwarding & Execution of EPC ContractProject Handing over to the client
11 Financing the BOT Projects TenderingFinancing the BOT ProjectsEPC Cost/ Construction CostNon -EPC Cost / Non-Construction Cost(IDC, Financing charges, consultancy etc.)Total Project Cost(TPC)Equity(To be infuse by the Concessionaire)Debt(To be taken as loan from banks)Grant(To be infuse by the Client)Grant is the part of amount which the client is to be infuse in the project but now a days some projects have negative grant or it called premium which amount concessionaire gives to the client / authority from the project.
13 Planning Macro Planning it is a base programme for further planning. This is an initial work plan at the time of starting of the project to find out the better way for working with major sections and items.it is a base programme for further planning.It can be submitted to the Client / Consultants.
14 Planning Micro Planning This is a detail work plan for execution of work which includes all the activities linked with each other with appropriate relations.What we can do with this:Finding out the critical tasks.Plan for utilization of our resources.Anytime execution detail.Anytime requirement of Equipments & Materials.After updating the programme we can know the delay and find out the better solution to finish the work in time.
16 WORK EXECUTION Pre-Construction Activities Before starting the construction activities, we have to do some pre-construction activities as follows:Camp / Office Construction.Survey & Alignment works.Establishment of Plants and mobilization of Equipments.Appointment of Key personals & supporting staffs.Finalization of Design & Drawings (For DBFOT projects).Land acquisition status and pressurize the authority if acquisition balance.Removal of encroachments.Shifting of utilities apart from ROW.
17 WORK EXECUTION Construction Activities We have to execute the work as per design & drawings. To quantify & bill the executed work we have BOQ (Bill of Quantity) for every project. Generally the BOQ item heads for Highway projects are as follows:Item No. 1 – Site Clearance – C & G, Dismantling, tree cutting, stump removal etc.Item No. 2 – Earth Work – Excavation (Soil, rock etc.), Earth Filling (Embankment, Sub-grade, Shoulder, Median etc.)Item No. 3 – Sub-Base – Granular Sub-Base (GSB), Wet Mix Macadam (WMM), Drainage layers etc.Item No. 4 – Bituminous Course – Primer, Tack Coat, BM, DBM, BC etc.Item No. 5 – Structure Works – Cross-Drainage (CD) works, Culverts, Bridge, ROB, Under Pass, Grade-separators etc.Item No. 6 – Drainage & Protection – Road side drains, Pitching, Turffing & other slope protection works.Item No. 7 – Junctions – Junction improvement works.Item No. 8 – Traffic Signage, Marking & Other Appurtenances - Kerb, Km stones, Signage, Road Markings, Guard rails, Crash barriers etc.Item No. 9 – Miscellaneous Works – Photographs, Lightings, Signals, Cars, etc.Item No. 10 – Maintenance Work – Pot – hole repair & Existing road maintenance.Item No. 11 – Toll Plaza – Toll plaza building, Booth & All provisions ( BOT Projects)
18 WORK EXECUTION Understanding Major Highway Works BC Earthen Shoulder MedianKerbBM/DBMPrimer / Tack CoatWMMGSBSub-GradeExcavationOGL & C&GEmbankment
19 WORK EXECUTION - Understanding Major Highway Works OGL :For future reference and payment we have to take original ground level (OGL) at defined offsets and existing road edge etc.Equipments Used :Auto Level & StaffTotal Station
20 WORK EXECUTION - Understanding Major Highway Works Clearing & Grubbing (C&G)This work shall consist of cutting, removing and disposing of all materials such as trees,bushes, shrubs, stumps, roots, grass, weeds, top organic soil not exceeding 150 mm inthickness, rubbish etc.MORTH Specification Clause - 201Equipments Used :DozerGrader
21 Rock Breaker (For rock only) WORK EXECUTION - Understanding Major Highway WorksExcavation (Soil & Rock)The work shall consist of excavation, removal and satisfactory disposal of all materials necessary for the construction of roadway, side drains and waterways in accordance with requirements of Specifications and the lines, grades and cross-sections shown in the drawings or as indicated by the Engineer. MORTH Specification Clause – 301.Equipments Used :ExcavatorTipperGraderWater TankerRock Breaker (For rock only)
22 WORK EXECUTION - Understanding Major Highway Works Earth Filling (Embankment, Sub-Grade, Median, Earthen Shoulder etc.):As per X-section & level required for formation we have to fill earth in lower area and prepare the Embankment after that the Sub-grade of required thickness also to be construct.Filling in median and preparation of earthen shoulder has to be done as shown in X-section.MORTH Specification Clause : 305, Material Used : Earth (Soil) / Moorum.Equipments Used :ExcavatorTipperGraderWater TankerVibratory Compactor
23 WORK EXECUTION - Understanding Major Highway Works Granular Sub-Base (GSB) :This work shall consist of laying and compacting well-graded material on prepared sub-grade in accordance with the requirements Specifications. The material shall be laid in one or more layers as lower sub-base and upper sub-base it also called drainage layer.MORTH Specification Clause : 401, Material Used : Natural / Crushed Aggregate, sand etc.Equipments Used :Excavator For MixingWheel LoaderTipperGraderWater TankerVibratory Compactor
24 WORK EXECUTION - Understanding Major Highway Works Wet Mix Macadam (WMM):This work shall consist of laying and compacting clean, crushed, graded aggregate and granular material, premixed with water, to a dense mass on a prepared sub-base/base or existing pavement as the case may be in accordance with the requirements in Specifications.MORTH Specification Clause : 406, Material Used : Crushed Aggregate, Stone Dust etc.Plant & Equipments Used :WMM PlantWheel LoaderTipperPaverWater TankerVibratory Compactor
25 Concrete Batch Mix Plant WORK EXECUTION - Understanding Major Highway WorksConcrete Kerb:Concrete Kerb / Divider is the item which makes median and separate the lane of the road.MORTH Specification Clause : 408, Material Used : Concrete (Mostly M-20 grade).Plant & Equipments Used :Concrete Batch Mix PlantTransit MixerKerb Casting MachineWater Tanker
26 Bitumen Distributer / Browser WORK EXECUTION - Understanding Major Highway WorksPrimer Coat:This work shall consist of the application of a single coat of low viscosity liquid bituminous material to a porous granular surface preparatory to the superimposition of bituminous treatment or mix.MORTH Specification Clause : 502, Material Used : Bitumen emulsion (Slow Setting).Equipments Used :Mechanical BroomerBitumen Distributer / Browser
27 Bitumen Distributer / Browser WORK EXECUTION - Understanding Major Highway WorksTack Coat:This work shall consist of the application of a single coat of low viscosity liquid bituminous material to an existing bituminous road surface preparatory to the superimposition of a bituminous mix, when specified in the Contract or instructed by the Engineer.MORTH Specification Clause : 503, Material Used : Bitumen emulsion (Rapid Setting).Equipments Used :Mechanical BroomerBitumen Distributer / Browser
28 WORK EXECUTION - Understanding Major Highway Works Bituminous Macadam (BM) / Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM):This is a bituminous mix item to be laid over WMM or existing road on prepared surface. Bituminous Macadam (BM) is a more open graded than the Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM).The Profile Correcting Course (PCC) also can be done by these items to correct the existing road’s profile.MORTH Specification Clause : 504 & 507, Material Used : Crushed Aggregate, Stone Dust, Bitumen & Filler (lime or cement) if required. Plant & Equipments Used :Hot Mix PlantWheel LoaderTipperPaverWater TankerTandem RollerPneumatic Roller
29 WORK EXECUTION - Understanding Major Highway Works Bituminous Concrete(BC):This is a top surface layer of Highway a bituminous mix item to be laid over BM/DBM. It also called wearing course.MORTH Specification Clause : 509, Material Used : Crushed Aggregate, Stone Dust, Bitumen & Filler (lime or cement) if required.Plant & Equipments Used :Hot Mix PlantWheel LoaderTipperPaverWater TankerTandem RollerPneumatic Roller
30 WORK EXECUTION Understanding Structure Works Cross Drainage : These type of structures used to drain out the natural water flow from one side of road to other side so it calls cross drainage structures. Following are the type of cross drainage structures mainly used in highway works :1- Box Culverts2- Slab Culverts3- Pipe CulvertsBridges : These structures are bigger than the culverts and used to construct on major highway hurdles like Canal, River, Major X-ing, Railway tracks etc. Following are the type of bridges mainly used in highway works :1- Minor Bridge – The bridge span less than 60m of length called minor bridge.2- Major Bridge – The bridge span more that 60m of length called major bridge.3- ROB (Rail Over Bridge) – As stated in the name it construct over a railway line.4- RUB (Rail Under Bridge) – As stated in the name it construct under a railway line.5- Flyover/Over Pass – These type of structures construct over any major junction or crowded area.6- Grade Separator – These type of structures used to construct where major highways cross each other and they need to connected without disturbing traffic movements.7- Underpass – When the main road cross any other road or rail or any hurdle below it called underpass..8- Pedestrian crossing (PX) / Cattle Crossing (CX) – These type of structures used to cross the main road by pedestrian or cattle. Mostly it a box type structure.
31 WORK EXECUTION Understanding Structure Works BOX CULVERT : As per its name it is monolithic box type structure. It may be single or multiple box type as shown in the picture. It may be precast also.
32 WORK EXECUTION Understanding Structure Works SLAB CULVERT : These type of culverts has different parts as foundation(Raft), Wall , Bracket & Slab. It may have separate foundation for each wall or combined also as per design requirements.
33 WORK EXECUTION Understanding Structure Works PIPE CULVERT : These type of culverts made of RCC Hume pipe having dia 300mm to 2000mm. The different parts of these culverts are PCC below pipe, RCC Hume pipe & Head wall etc. As per IS-458 classification concrete pipes are NP(Non-Pressure)-1, NP-2, NP-3 & NP-4 and P(Pressure)-1, P-2, P-3. Normally NP-4 pipe used for pipe culverts in highways.
34 WORK EXECUTION Understanding Structure Works MINOR BRIDGE : The bridge span less than 60m of length called minor bridge. It can be BOX type Structure or having different structure segments ie. Foundation (Raft or Pile), Substructure (Pier, Pier cap or Wall), Super structure (Diaphragm wall, RCC Girder or Steel Girder, Slab etc.)
35 WORK EXECUTIONUnderstanding Structure WorksMINOR BRIDGE
36 WORK EXECUTION Understanding Structure Works MAJOR BRIDGE : The bridge span more than 60m of length called minor bridge. It have different structure segments ie. Foundation (Raft or Pile or Well), Substructure (Pier, Pier cap), Super structure (Diaphragm wall, RCC Girder or Steel Girder, Slab etc.)
37 WORK EXECUTIONUnderstanding Structure WorksMAJOR BRIDGE
40 WORK EXECUTIONUnderstanding Structure WorksFLYOVER
41 WORK EXECUTIONUnderstanding Structure WorksGRADE SEPARATOR
42 WORK EXECUTIONUnderstanding Structure WorksUNDER PASS
43 WORK EXECUTION Understanding Structure Works Pedestrian Crossing Cattle Crossing
44 Process Flow of General Major Item Execution in Highway WORK EXECUTIONProcess Flow of General Major Item Execution in HighwayMaterials Obtains after crushing of boulder :40mm Agg.20mm Agg.10mm Agg.Stone DustBoulder Crushing in Crusher Plant with the help of other equipments & Labour.Boulder ExtractionBy TipperCrusher PlantThrough Weigh BridgeProcessing in production plants like WMP/HMP/RMC plants with Materials & Other EquipmentsMaterials Production Plant :Aggregates, Cement/Bitumen & Other MaterialsBy Tipper & LoaderMaterials IssueCentral StoreCrusher PlantBy TipperThrough Weigh BridgeThrough Weigh BridgeProcessed Material reached at Site and with the help of some other Equipments & Labours it become a final BOQ ItemOther purchased Item like Cement, Bitumen, Emulsion etc.By Tipper / TM
46 Monitoring Daily Progress Report Monitoring is an essential part of any project. To know the progress of work and to plan further action daily progress have to be monitored without fail.Daily Progress ReportThis is a daily basis report of work done at site with all the details showing physical progress, financial progress, equipment and manpower utilization etc. (It will be generated at the site and sent to Corp. for further information & utilization)What we can do with this:All the functions of PMC are depends on this report.All other reports like weekly progress, monthly progress, status of highway and structures can be made with this.It will helps to update the work programme.It’s summarized report can be send to upper Management for daily progress review.
47 Monitoring Monthly Progress Report This is a detail report about monthly status of the project comprising with upto date Physical & Financial progress and overall project status as on date with some graphical charts.What we can do with this:Based on this report we can prepare the MPR for Client / Consultants.This report will show the overall status so that we can plan our further step.It will show us the actual status of hindrances and other problems for the project.It will helps to update the work programme.
48 Monitoring Updating Highway Strip Chart Highway is a linear part of the project so the progress can be monitor with the strip chart with all the major layers.What we can do with this:It will show the physical progress of Highway works at a glance.It will show the Hindrances / Land availability status.With the help of this chart we can calculate the work done and balance quantities of highway.It will help to know the linear progress of all the layers.
49 Monitoring Updating Structure Strip / Pictorial Charts To know about the structure wise progress at a glance this is the best way to maintain the pictorial chart for individual structures.What we can do with this:It will show the physical progress of Structure works at a glance.With the help of this chart we can calculate the work done and balance quantities of Structures.It will help to know the actual status of structures and to finalize the further step for structure progress.
50 Monitoring Other Reports Some other report which can help for monitoring the projects are as follows :Daily Manpower Status : It will show the status of manpower present at site and further requirement if any.Daily Equipment Status : It will show the status of equipments deployed at site, working, idling and breakdown status and further requirement if any.
52 Billing Monthly Running Account Bill (R.A.Bill) A periodic RA Bills to has be claimed to the client for payment of work done items. This is very important part of the project because the cash – flow depends on the correct claims made and timely payment released by the Client / Authority. Following checks should be done for billing:Quantities claimed in the bill is correct.The method for calculating the quantities is correct.How much quantities are with held.Previous with held quantities paid or still with held if yes then reason for held.
53 Billing Monthly Comparison Charts (To be made by site staff) Following comparison charts should be made on monthly basis:Actual Work done and Billed quantities.Quantities billed by us and paid by clients including reason for deductions (If any).Quantities billed by Sub-Contractors and paid by us.
54 Billing Tracking of Non BOQ Items The items which don't exist in BOQ called Non-BOQ or Extra Items. For the payment of these item we must have approval of quantities and rates. The checks for these type of items are as follows:How much quantity is going to be execute?Is the item similar to any other BOQ item ?If yes then derive the rate from that particular item.If no then make a proper rate analysis.The rate & quantity is to be approved by client.After approval all executed quantity should be paid.
55 Billing Tracking of Variation Items The items which exist in BOQ but the quantity of that particular item overshoot from BOQ quantity called Variation Item. For the payment of these item we must have approval of quantities only. The checks for these type of items are as follows:How much quantity is going to be execute further?The quantity is to be approved by client.After approval all executed quantity should be paid.
56 Billing Re-Conciliation of Major Materials Upto date and monthly material re-conciliation should be done for the following major materials :Aggregate & GSB material.Fine sand & coarse sand.BitumenCementSteel ReinforcementRe-Conciliation of Major Materials will be done by comparing the consumption by Job Mix Formula and actual consumption done at site as per store records.
57 Costing & Budgeting Costing of Balance Work To find out the balance cost to go for any particular project , periodical costing will be done on following basis:Actual balance work quantity.Actual rate of Materials as on date.Actual PRW rate as on date.Actual Sub-contractor’s rate.Actual Equipment output.
58 Costing & Budgeting Budgeting for Balance Work On the basis of actual cost to go and work programme for any particular project, monthly head wise budget for the balance work can be prepared.