Presentation on theme: "Territorial Expansion Manifest Destiny….. expansion was across the country was a God given right. Mexican Cession California Gold Rush…settled the state."— Presentation transcript:
Territorial Expansion Manifest Destiny….. expansion was across the country was a God given right. Mexican Cession California Gold Rush…settled the state quickly Texas acquistion Each expansion reopened slavery debate.
Compromises Series of compromises pushed the decision over slavery –Missouri Compromise of 1820…..divided slave and free territory at the southern border of Missouri –Compromise of 1850 … CA was admitted as a free state Utah and New Mexico territories decide by Popular sovereignty…..states could decide Fugitive Slave Act…north required to return fugitive slaves or face action Kansas Nebraska Act
Proslavery Argument Ban slavery =deprivation of property slaves better off free slaves=job competition Antislavery Argument slavery morally wrong harmful to society
Republican party born 1854… opposed slavery –Abraham Lincoln candidate Platform called for end of slavery in territories….leave where it existed Moderate ….seen as ideal solution Democrats split…ran two candidates
different ways of life…goals, beliefs, economic and political systems etc. views on slavery –North….morally wrong (no slavery) –South- slaves property and integral to way of life Fight to keep
Reconstruction The Second Civil War
Over What was the Civil War Fought? secession states rights vs. Federal govt. westward expansion=increased tension over slavery Sectionalism---excessive emphasis on sectional interests –South viewed southerners first. Nationalism –North saw nation as most important. slavery
Differences Profound, Unchanging, and Deep different ways of life…goals, beliefs, economic and political systems etc. –did not change after compromise…differences remain
Why did the North Win the Civil War? Northern Advantages –resources/industry –military tech/supplies –population –military leaders developed –Emancipation Proclamation –Lincolns leadership –no civilian decimationmation Southern Advantages –military leaders –psychological advantage –did not have to defeat only defend
What made the Civil War Different than Prior Wars? higher casualties new military technologies brother against brother civilian casualties/destruction photographed extensively
Mathew Brady The Father of Photojournalism
Confederate dead Fredericksburg
Civil War hospital Dead at Antietam Destruction in VA (1862)
Reconstruction Goals/Issues Restore the southern states to the Union Rebuild the ruined economy Repair the destruction of the south Rights of former slaves
How should southern states rejoin Union? Confederate states…. –punish or not? –How do they get their seats back in Congress? What rights should former slaves have? How should the economy be rebuilt? Who should lead Reconstruction?
How should the economy be rebuilt? Devastated economy Land…most valuable (almost only) asset Redistribution plans were suggested. –Land would be confiscated and given to former slaves. –40 Acres and a Mule –Land was returned to owners –Sharecropping system develops
South Physical Toll Destroyed: –2/3 of shipping industry –9,000 miles of railroads –Farmland, livestock, machinery, bridges, dams, levees, and roads Factories, cities burned Land values down 70%
Human Toll Generation(s) of healthy young men killed 260,000 dead…..;1/4 of its pop of white men (20-40) 1 out of 3 killed /wounded Orphans, widows 4 million freed slaves homeless, jobless Destitute whites and blacks Plantations 3 billion $$$in lost slave labor No $$ to hire workers Sharecropping system develops debt slavery changes south geographically
Rights for African Americans What rights should they have? Many Republicans favored citizenship rights Opposition present in south
Lincolns Reconstruction Plan forgiving…non-punitive Offered a pardon….official forgiveness of a crime to any confederate who: – took an oath of allegiance –would accept slavery policy Denied pardons to: – govt. & military officials & those who killed war prisoners 10% Plan…states could participate after 10% of voters swore allegiance
With malice toward none; with charity for all; with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nations wounds …to do all which may achieve and cherish a just, and a lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations. -Lincolns Second Inaugural Address March 1865
Lincolns Assassination Assassinated at Fords Theater April 14, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth –Proslavery and blamed Lincoln for war The loss of Lincoln changed historys course
President Andrew Johnson Took over after Lincolns assassination Southern Democrat Reconstruction plan …. largely followed Lincolns at first Required states to ratify 13 th Amendment Supported states rights Largely unconcerned with A. A. rights Conflict with Congress inevitable
Congressional Opposition Radical Republicans – Republicans opposed to President Johnsons moderate positions….controlled Congress. Led by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner 2 main goals: 1. Break power of rich planters …punishment for south 2. Freed slaves should receive full citizenship rights
Constitutional help 13 th Amendment – abolished slavery 14 th Amendment – citizenship to all men *did not include American Indians 15 th Amendment – voting rights for black men
Impeachment of Johnson Johnson -not w/ Rad Rep. Vetoed legislation, spoke against amendments, called Rad. Reps. traitors Had no real power Congress impeached …accusation to remove an official from office….. –failed by one vote
South resisted policies Govt. sent federal troops in to occupy uncooperative areas scalawag –name used by southerners to describe southern whites who cooperated with Reconstruction. carpetbagger –name used by southerners to describe northerners who settled in south after the war.
What did freed slaves need most? education/schools –90% illiterate clothing, food, land *Freedmens Bureau - relief organization: food, education etc to freed slaves
Southern resistance: established Black Codes state laws that limited the freedom of Black Americans. most little different than slavery… examples… –apprentice laws –literacy tests –poll taxes –marriage, gun ownership, discrimination etc.
Southern States Passed Black Codes These state laws were unconstitutional and often did not allow many of the things we take for granted.
White Resistance to Reconstruction 3 main areas: 1.state governments (through laws passed) 2.media coverage (newspapers and cartoons) 3.Intimidation …terrorist groups (KKK, Red Shirts)
Media Control with devices like political cartoons Carpetbagger and Black man lynched. One less vote Election: This is a white mans election Worse than slavery.
Birth of the Ku Klux Klan The KKK formed 1865 to destroy Radical Reconstruction used violence and hate to keep blacks in their place. The KKK also against immigrants, Catholics, Jews, and womens rights. Symbol of KKK pride = Parade Displaying anti-Semitism The Imperial Wizard
Legal discrimination in south against Black Americans separate but equal law of the land –segregation…separation is O.K. –facilities unequal
Plessy V. Ferguson (1896): Just the facts. Originated when Homer Plessy brought argument against Louisiana for being forced to sit in colored section of train. Supreme Court ruled that separate (segregated) facilities were constitutional as long as they were equal. Covered many areas of public life (restaurants, theaters, restroom, schools) Gave birth to Jim Crow Laws (name came from minstrel show) Examples of inequality 1902: 1.Mississippi education $22.25 per white student, $2.00 per black 2.Louisiana :130,000 registered black voters, only 1,300 voted
Essential Questions What were the main goals of Radical Republicans? How did the White South resist Reconstruction? Why did the Whites South resist Reconstruction? What were the main goals of the KKK? Why did the Federal Government not do a better job of enforcing the 14th and 15th amendments, and other Reconstruction policies?