2Intelligence Includes: capacity to learn from experience ability to solve problemscapacity to reason clearlyRobert Sternberg, 1997, “[intelligence is]...the mental abilities needed to select, adapt to, and shape environments.”
3Alfred Binetcommissioned in 1904, by the French government to study the problem of determining children’s intelligence.collaborated with Theodore Simonset out to measure mental age, a chronological age typical of a child’s performance at a certain levelwas successful in creating a series of questions to discern intellect
4Lewis Terman of Stanford University revised Binet’s intelligence testadapted some of the original and added othersestablished new age normsextended the upper range from teenagers to “superior adults”called it the Stanford-Binet
5What is an IQ? IQ = ___mental age_____ X 100 It’s an idea developed by German psychologist William SternIQ = ___mental age_____ X 100chronological ageAverage IQ score = 100Thus, if a 8 year old child tests with a mental age of 10, her I Q would be 125.
6Factor AnalysisThis is a way of identifying clusters of test items that measure a common ability.Examples: verbal, spatial, reasoning, social, leadership ability
7Robert Sternberg -Three aspects of Intelligence Analytical = academic problem-solving, a single right answerCreative = novel ideas, reacting to novel situationsPractical = required for everyday tasks, need multiple solutions
8Creativity - Sternberg “The ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable.”Five components of creativity:Expertise –base of knowledgeImaginative thinking skills – ability to see things in a new way.Venturesome personality – tolerance for ambiguity and riskIntrinsic motivation – internally motivatedCreative environment - support
9Howard Gardner intelligence comes in different “packages” accounts for the savant syndrome (low score on IQ tests, high ability, even brilliance, in one area).we have multiple intelligences
10Mental Retardation Level Typical Intelligence Scores Percentage of Persons w/RetardationAdaptation to Demands of LifeMild50-7085%up to 6th grade academic, some social and vocationalModerate35-4910%2nd grade, sheltered workshopsSevere20-303-4%talk, simple work tasks, but not self-supportingProfoundBelow 201-2%Require constant aid and supervision
11Test Construction Terminology: Standardization – comparing scores to a pretested, representative groupReliability – test-retest constancyValidity – the test must measure what it says it will measureContent validity – measuring the specific pertinent behavior
12Emotional Intelligence - Gardner “The ability to perceive, understand, and manage emotions.”Self awareness empathyDelay gratification handle othersSelf-control
13Assessing Intelligence WAIS – Wechsler Adult Intelligence ScaleWISC – Wechsler Intelligence Scale for ChildrenCreated by David WechslerGives a Verbal and Performance score, great differences between the two may indicate a learning disability or other problem/
14Test Construction Criterion – what the test is designed to predict Predictive validity - the test’s ability to predict future achievement (also called criterion-related validity)
15How well do aptitude tests predict success? They are highly predictive in the early grades, but not as we get older.The best predictor of future grades is past grades!!The best predictor of future behavior is past behavior.
17Genetic Influences on IQ Identical twins have almost identical IQ scores - raised apart or together.The gene on chromosome 6, is found in about 2/3 of children with very high IQ scores.Smarter mice have been produced by injecting an extra gene into fertilized eggs.Adopted children resemble their adopted parents less and less with age.
18Environmental Influences on IQ Fraternal twins score more alike than other siblings.Genes and environment interact to shape the brain.Severe disadvantage deeply harms children.Programs like Head-Start have immediate positive effects that are reduced over time.
19Education Education and intelligence enhance each other. It pays off in increased earnings later in life.IQ scores rise during the school year and fall during the summer.
20Ethnic Similarities and Differences In the U.S. there is a gap in average IQ scores between whites, blacks, and Hispanics.Other countries also have IQ score differences among different ethnic populations.Differences may be due to the environment.
21Gender Similarities and Differences No overall difference in gender IQ scoresGirls are better spellers.Girls are more verbally fluent.Boys are more often in special education.Boys talk later, stutter more, have difficulty with reading more often.In high school, boys underachieve more often then girls by a 2:1 ratio.
22What about math?In math grades the typical girl equals or surpasses the average boy.Females have the edge in computation.Males have the edge in problem solving.Males can quickly rotate 3D objects in their minds.More western males score at the top, but females score equally in the east.Exposure to male hormones increases spatial ability.
23What about emotion? Women are better “emotion detectors” than men Myers speculates that because women need to read the emotions of their infants and would-be lovers, they have developed more empathy.
24BiasIQ tests are biased in the sense that they detect genetic differences and cultural, environmental factors.Gender and racial bias are also factors in teaching and testing.Sometimes IQ tests are wrongly used to discriminate.