Presentation on theme: "Intelligence Module 24. Intelligence Includes: capacity to learn from experience ability to solve problems capacity to reason clearly Robert Sternberg,"— Presentation transcript:
Intelligence Module 24
Intelligence Includes: capacity to learn from experience ability to solve problems capacity to reason clearly Robert Sternberg, 1997, [intelligence is]...the mental abilities needed to select, adapt to, and shape environments.
Alfred Binet commissioned in 1904, by the French government to study the problem of determining childrens intelligence. collaborated with Theodore Simon set out to measure mental age, a chronological age typical of a childs performance at a certain level was successful in creating a series of questions to discern intellect
Lewis Terman of Stanford University revised Binets intelligence test adapted some of the original and added others established new age norms extended the upper range from teenagers to superior adults called it the Stanford-Binet
What is an IQ? Its an idea developed by German psychologist William Stern IQ = ___mental age_____ X 100 chronological age Average IQ score = 100 Thus, if a 8 year old child tests with a mental age of 10, her IQ would be 125.
Factor Analysis This is a way of identifying clusters of test items that measure a common ability. Examples: verbal, spatial, reasoning, social, leadership ability
Robert Sternberg - Three aspects of Intelligence 1.Analytical = academic problem- solving, a single right answer 2.Creative = novel ideas, reacting to novel situations 3.Practical = required for everyday tasks, need multiple solutions
Creativity - Sternberg The ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable. Five components of creativity: 1.Expertise –base of knowledge 2.Imaginative thinking skills – ability to see things in a new way. 3.Venturesome personality – tolerance for ambiguity and risk 4.Intrinsic motivation – internally motivated 5.Creative environment - support
Howard Gardner intelligence comes in different packages accounts for the savant syndrome (low score on IQ tests, high ability, even brilliance, in one area). we have multiple intelligences
Mental Retardation LevelTypical Intelligence Scores Percentage of Persons w/Retardation Adaptation to Demands of Life Mild % up to 6 th grade academic, some social and vocational Moderate % 2 nd grade, sheltered workshops Severe % talk, simple work tasks, but not self- supporting ProfoundBelow 201-2% Require constant aid and supervision
Test Construction Terminology: Standardization – comparing scores to a pretested, representative group Reliability – test-retest constancy Validity – the test must measure what it says it will measure Content validity – measuring the specific pertinent behavior
Emotional Intelligence - Gardner The ability to perceive, understand, and manage emotions. Self awarenessempathy Delay gratificationhandle others Self-control
Assessing Intelligence WAIS – Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WISC – Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Created by David Wechsler Gives a Verbal and Performance score, great differences between the two may indicate a learning disability or other problem/
Test Construction Criterion – what the test is designed to predict Predictive validity - the tests ability to predict future achievement (also called criterion-related validity)
How well do aptitude tests predict success? They are highly predictive in the early grades, but not as we get older. The best predictor of future grades is past grades!! The best predictor of future behavior is past behavior.
Genetics and Environment
Genetic Influences on IQ Identical twins have almost identical IQ scores - raised apart or together. The gene on chromosome 6, is found in about 2/3 of children with very high IQ scores. Smarter mice have been produced by injecting an extra gene into fertilized eggs. Adopted children resemble their adopted parents less and less with age.
Environmental Influences on IQ Fraternal twins score more alike than other siblings. Genes and environment interact to shape the brain. Severe disadvantage deeply harms children. Programs like Head-Start have immediate positive effects that are reduced over time.
Education Education and intelligence enhance each other. It pays off in increased earnings later in life. IQ scores rise during the school year and fall during the summer.
Ethnic Similarities and Differences In the U.S. there is a gap in average IQ scores between whites, blacks, and Hispanics. Other countries also have IQ score differences among different ethnic populations. Differences may be due to the environment.
Gender Similarities and Differences No overall difference in gender IQ scores Girls are better spellers. Girls are more verbally fluent. Boys are more often in special education. Boys talk later, stutter more, have difficulty with reading more often. In high school, boys underachieve more often then girls by a 2:1 ratio.
What about math? In math grades the typical girl equals or surpasses the average boy. Females have the edge in computation. Males have the edge in problem solving. Males can quickly rotate 3D objects in their minds. More western males score at the top, but females score equally in the east. Exposure to male hormones increases spatial ability.
What about emotion? Women are better emotion detectors than men Myers speculates that because women need to read the emotions of their infants and would-be lovers, they have developed more empathy.
Bias IQ tests are biased in the sense that they detect genetic differences and cultural, environmental factors. Gender and racial bias are also factors in teaching and testing. Sometimes IQ tests are wrongly used to discriminate.