Presentation on theme: "Good Morning! Christopher Kaufman, Ph.D. (207)"— Presentation transcript:
1Good Morning! Christopher Kaufman, Ph.D. (207) 878-1777 web: kaufmanpsychological.org
2Mind Over MathThe Neuropsychology of Mathematics and Practical Applications for Instruction
3I never did very well in math - I could never seem to persuade the teacher that I hadn't meant my answers literally. ~ Calvin Trillin
4Agenda Morning Afternoon 8:30 - Neuroanatomy 101 (A Quick User’s Guide to the Brain)9:00 - The Brain on Math (AKA: The Neuropsychology of Mathematics)10:30 Break10:45 When Brains and Math Collide! The Neuropsychology of Math Disorders (With a Side Trip into Math Anxiety)11:30 Lunch12:30 Practical/Implications Strategies for Classroom and Remedial Instruction2:00 Mini-Break2:15 More Strategies2:45 Q & A3:00 Adjourn
5Math refusal from an FBA perspective . . . The student who hides his head under his hood or exclaims, “This is BORING!” is usually saying, “I hate this repeated feeling of not being successful, and I don’t ever want to have to feel it again.”David Berg, Educational TherapistAuthor of, Making Math Real
6Your Turn . .Choose a kid from your caseload who struggles significantly with math.Take a few moments to complete the first part of the Personal Case Study Form
7Neuroanatomy 101: A Quick User’s Guide to the Brain
10Left HemisphereWhere spoken and written language are primarily processed (greater hemispheric specialization in boys)Where language originates (language-based thoughts develop in the left hemisphere)Where phonemes, graphemes, grammar, punctuation, syntax, and math facts are processedWhere routine, overlearned information is processed
11Right HemisphereHas greater capacity for handling informational complexity because of it’s interregional connectionsHas greater capacity for processing novel informationTends to be more dominant for processing creative, imaginative, flexible thinkingTends to be more dominant for emotional aspects of writingMore common source of spatial/visual-motor deficits
12Take a moment to consider . . Your Turn . . .Take a moment to consider . .Which elements of math functioning would be more likely processed in the left hemisphere?Which elements of math functioning would be more likely processed in the right hemisphere?Why?
13The Four LobesFRONTALLOBEPARIETALLOBEOCCIPITALLOBETEMPORALLOBE
14The Neuropsychology of Math (AKA: The Brain on Math)
15The Nature of MathIt’s sequential and cumulative (earlier skills continually form the basis for newer skills across the grade span)It’s conceptual (lots of ideas andthemes must be understood and‘reasoned’)It’s procedural (lots of rules and algorithms must be mastered to calculate – perform ‘numerical operations’It’s highly variable from a skill perspective (math is a many varied thing!)
16Arithmetic Skill: An Intrinsic Capacity? Research suggests . .Infants demonstrate number sense early in development (Sousa, 2005)8-month olds can reliably distinguish individual objects from collections (Chiang and Wynn, 2000)
17Has math sense been selected for by evolution? (Sousa, 2004) Our most ancient ancestors were best able to pass on their genes if . . .They could quickly determine the number of predators in a packThey could determine how much to plant to feed the clan
18Math Ability & the Neurodevelopmental Functions (Portions adapted from the work of Mel Levine)Temporal-SequentialFollowing sequencesand multiple steps(Levine)Spatial-MotorVisualizing problems/procedures,comprehending angles (and other elementsof geometry), creating charts, graphs, etc., andmaintaining sufficient grapho-motor accuracy tosolve problems correctly on paperMemoryRecalling facts, procedures,and rules, recognizingpatterns, and problem solvingAttentionMaintaining sufficient cognitiveenergy and attention on workMATHExecutive FunctioningPlanning, organizing, monitoringthe quality of work (also determiningwhat is/is not important for problemsolving)LanguageProcessing written language andspoken information – in directions,problems – and understanding/recallingtechnical math vocabulary
19math processing center! There is no singlemath processing center!NeuromotorFunctionsAttentionControlsWorkingMemorySpatialComprehensionExecutiveFunctioningMemory(LTM)Language
20Left vs. Right Brain Math Skill In general terms . .Left Hemisphere: More responsible for processing of arithmetic (tasked to determine exact answers using language processes)Right Hemisphere: Responsible for estimating approximate magnitude using visual-spatial reasoning skills
21Verbal Functioning and Math Ability Related to the language centers of the temporal lobe and posterior frontal lobeThe ability to store and fluidly retrieval digit names and math facts is mediated by the temporal lobeFrontal and temporal language systems are used for exact computations because we tend to ‘talk our way’ through calculations
22How much language is required to solve this? 1013- 879
23Side Bar Issue: Vocabulary Deficits and Math Math is replete with technical terms, phrases, and concepts (i.e., “sum,” “factor,” “hypotenuse,” “perimeter,” “remainder”)Math also requires the following of often detailed verbal instructionsStudents with limited language comprehension skills can struggle greatly with math, even if they have no difficulty recalling math facts and the specific terms related to them!
24Visual/Verbal Connections Related to Math Functions Also temporal lobe areas related to language functioningOccipital-Temporal Convergence links the visual element of digits to their verbal counterpartsThis area allows for the attaching of fixed symbols to numerical constructs (Feifer & Defina, 2005)
25Visual-Spatial Functioning and Mathematics We’re talking primarily about processing in the parietal lobe (site of spatial processing) and occipital lobe (the site of visual processing)Left and right hemispheres are involved, with the left being associated with arithmetic/sequential/factual processing and the right related to simultaneous/spatial/holistic processing
26Left Parietal Lobe: Center of Arithmetic Processing? Area associatedwith arithmeticprocessing15% biggerInEinstein’sBrain!
27Side Bar Issue: Einstein’s Brain Actually weighed a bit less than the average for brains of it’s time/age;But, had greater neuronal density than most brains and was about 15% wider in the parietal lobe region (and had fewer sulci in this area)Thus, he had somewhat greater brain capacity in the areas associated with arithmetic and spatial reasoning ability
28More on Right Hemisphere Functioning and Math SkillsA (not the) visual-spatialprocessing center (left parietal alsoprocesses visual-spatial information)Approximations of magnitude arelargely made in the right parietal lobeMental rotation and similar spatialreasoning tasks tend to beprocessed in the right hemisphereMath concepts are ‘reasoned’ inthe right hemisphere (the brain’s‘big picture,’ ‘integration center’)Novel stimuli are processed in the righthemisphere
29Many aspects of math are visual-spatial in nature Visualization and construction of numbersVisualizing of the ‘internal number line’Visualizing of word problems (easier to determine the needed operations if one can picture the nature of the problem)Geometry (duh . .)
30Are boys intrinsically better at math than girls? NO (pure and simple)Boys do have better mental rotation skillsThis may give them greater confidence in attacking certain kinds of math problems (Feifer & DeFina, 2005)Overall, though, there is growing consensus in the field that any advantage boys have over girls in math is a product of cultural/societal convention
31Your Turn . . .Which figures to the right matchthe ones to the let?
32A closer look at the frontal lobe CentralSulcus (or‘Fisure’)Math strategies and problem-solving directed from here!
33Frontal Lobe Specifics (Adapted from Hale & Fiorello, 2004) Motor CortexDorsolateralPrefrontal CortexPlanningStrategizingSustained AttentionFlexibilitySelf-MonitoringOrbital PrefrontalImpulse Control(behavioral inhibition)Emotional Modulation
34Executive Skill and Math Math’s Changing Face (It’s new again)And in with constructionist math curricula that emphasize discovery learning and the self-construction of math know-howOut with the explicit teaching of facts and standard algorithms . .
35Executive dysfunction impacts: Self-directed learningDiscovery-based learningSelf-initiated strategy applicationCollaborative learningThis is why so many kids with EFD havestruggled with constructionist math curriculums
37Impact of Executive Dysfunction on Math Working memoryproblems lead topoorly executed wordproblemsImpulse control problemslead to careless errors(e.g., misread signs)= ?Organizational/planningdeficits lead to workpoorly organized on thethe page (or work notshown)Attention problemslead to other carelesserrors (i.e., Forgetting toregroup, etc.)
38The Three Primary Levels of Memory: Sensory Memory (STM): The briefest of memories – information is held for a few seconds before being discardedWorking Memory (WM): The ability to ‘hold’ several facts or thoughts in memory temporarily while solving a problem or task – in a sense, it’s STM put to work.Long-Term Memory (LTM): Information and experiences stored in the brain over longer periods of time (hours to forever)
40Working Memory: Some kids have got ‘leaky buckets’ Levine: Some kids are blessed with large, ‘leak proof,’ working memoriesOthers are born with small WM’s that leak out info before it can be processed
41A Working Memory Brain Teaser! Your Turn . . .A Working Memory Brain Teaser!I am a small parasite. Add one letter and I am a thin piece of wood. Change one letter and I am a vertical heap. Change another letter and I am a roughly built hut. Change one final letter and I am a large fish. What was I and what did I become?
42How Large is the Child’s Working Memory Bucket? WM capacity tends to predict students’ ability to direct and monitor cognition.How Large is the Child’s Working Memory Bucket?Case 3: FrankieForgetaboutitCase 1: Rachel RecallsitallCase 2: Nicky Normalalgorithmfactalgorithmfactsdirectionsfactdirectionsalgorithm42
43Working memory: A fundamental element of math functioning Mental math (classic measure of working memory skill)Word ProblemsRecalling the elements of algorithms and procedures while calculating on paperInterpreting and constructing charts/graphsSo much of learning and academic performance requires the manipulation of material held in the mind’s temporary storage faculties
44The majority of studies on math disabilities suggest that many children with a math disability have memory deficits (Swanson 2006) Memory deficits affect mathematical performance in several ways:Performance on simple arithmetic depends on speedy and efficient retrieval from long-term memory.Temporary storage of numbers when attempting to find the answer to a mathematical problem is crucial. If the ability to use working memory resources is compromised, then problem solving is extremely difficult.Poor recall of facts leads to difficulties executing calculation procedures and immature problem-solving strategies.Research also shows that math disabilities are frequently co-morbid with reading disabilities (Swanson, 2006). Students with co-occurring math and reading disabilities fall further behind in math achievement than those with only a math disability. However, research shows that the most common deficit among all students with a math disability, with or without a co-occurring reading disability, is their difficulty in performing on working memory tasks.
45Let’s Look at a Classic Word Problem . . Sharon has finished an out-of-town business meeting. She is leaving Chicago at 3:00 on a two-hour flight to Boston. Her husband, Tom, lives in Maine, 150 miles from Boston. It’s his job to pick up Sharon at the airport as soon as the flight lands. If Tom’s average speed while driving is 60 miles per hour, at what time (EST) must he leave his house to arrive at the airport on time?
46Math AnxietyMathematics is the supreme judge; from its decisions there is no appeal. ~Tobias Dantzig
47Math Anxiety on a Brain Level (or, ‘When the amygdala comes along for the ride’)Bottom line: It’s crucial to keep kids from getting overly anxious during math instruction (or they may always be anxious during math instruction!)
48Research (and common sense) clearly indicates . . . As anxiety goes up . .Working memoryCapacity goes down!
49He was seized by the fidgets, Dropped science, and took up divinity. The best math anxiety limerick ever?There was a young man from Trinity, Who solved the square root of infinity. While counting the digits,He was seized by the fidgets, Dropped science, and took up divinity.~Author Unknown
50When Brains and Math Collide! Subtypes of Math Disabilitiesand Their Neuropsychological Bases
51Can you say, “Dyscalculia?” Sure you can!! Occur as oftenAs RD’s!!Developmental Dyscalculia defined: DD is a structural disorder of mathematicalabilities which has its origin in a genetic code or congenital disorder of thoseparts of the brain that are the direct anatomico-physiological substrate of thematuration of the mathematical abilities adequate to age, without a simultaneousdisorder of general mental functions (Kosc, 1974, as cited by Rourke et al., 2005)Huh?!Said more simply! Dyscalculia refers to any brain-based math disability!
52Epidemiology of Math Disabilities Occur in about 1 - 6% of the population (Rourke, et al., 1997; DSM-IV-TR); Geary (2004) says 5 – 8%. A recent Mayo Clinic study suggested the incidence in the general population could be as high as 14% (depending upon which definition of math LD is used . .)Like all LD’s, Math LD occurs more often in boys than girlsMD’s definitely run in families (kids with parents/siblings with MD are 10 times more likely to be identified with an MD than kids in the general population)Important take home point: Math disabilities (‘MD’s’) occur just as often as reading disabilities (‘RD’s’) – this has big implications for the RTI process!!
53Types of Math Disability (MD) Verbal/Semantic Memory (language based, substantial co-occurrence with reading disabilties)Procedural (AKA: ‘anarithmetria;’ substantial overlap with executive functioning and memory deficits)Visual-Spatial (substantial overlap with NLD)
54Semantic/Language-Based MD’s Characterized by poor number-symbol association and slow retrieval of math facts (Hale & Fiorello, 2004)Commonly co-occur with language and reading disorders (Geary, 2004)Are thought to relate to deficits in the areas of phonological processing and rapid retrieval/processing of facts from long-term memoryMath reasoning skills (i.e., number sense and ability to detect size/magnitude) are generally preserved (Feifer & DeFina, 2005)
55Error Patterns Associated with the Verbal/Semantic Subtype These kids tend to struggle recalling and processing at the ‘what’ (as opposed to the ‘how’) level.They’ll forget (or will have great trouble learning) the names of numbers, how to make numbers, the names/processes of signs (i.e.,might often confuse ‘X’ with ‘÷’), and multiplication factsThey’ll make counting errors and other errors related to the ‘exact’ nature of math (always have to ‘rediscover’ the answer to problems such as and 7 X 3).May arrive at the right answer, but have trouble explaining how they got there.
56The Procedural Subtype of MD (Feifer & DeFina, 2005; Hale & Fiorello, 2004) Disrupts the ability to use strategic algorithms when attempting to solve math problemsThat is, kids with this subtype of MD tend to struggle with the syntax of arithmetic, and have difficulty recalling the sequence of steps necessary to perform numerical operations (leads to lots of calculation errors!)Often seen in conjunction with ADHD/EFD subtypes, because the core deficit is thought to relate to a frontal lobe/executive functioning weakness (particularly working memory difficulties and slow processing speed)These kids tend to rely fairly heavily on immature counting strategies (counting on fingers and through the use of hash marks on paper)
57Working Memory and the Procedural Type of MD How much working capacity and sequential processing skill is needed to solve the following?An elementary school has 24 students in each classroom. If there are 504 students in the whole school, how many classrooms are there?I forget how you do . . .
59Error Patterns Associated With the Procedural Subtype of MD Like kids with verbal/semantic MD, kids with the procedural subtype make errors related to ‘exactness’ (as opposed to estimating magnitude or comprehending concepts)Errors are not related to the ‘what,’ but are instead related to the ‘how’ (e.g., How do you subtract 17 from 32? How do you calculate the radius of a circle?)These kids know their facts (e.g., might easily recall addition & multiplication facts), but struggle greatly with recalling the steps/procedures involved in subtraction with regrouping and multiple digit multiplication.Often do better on quizzes of isolated basic facts, but struggle with retrieval of the same facts to solve word problems or longer computations
60The Visual-Spatial Subtype of MD Heavily researched by Byron Rourke (leading researcher in the field of nonverbal learning disabilities – ‘NLD’)This subtype relates to deficits in the areas of visual-spatial organization, reasoning, and integrationDifficulties with novel problem solving generally compound math reasoning strugglesAt a brain level, the deficits are thought to relate to processing deficiencies in the right (and, to some extent, left) parietal lobe (were visual-spatial-holistic processing occurs)
61Error Patterns Associated with the Visual-Spatial Subtype Fine-motor problems incorrectly formed/poorly aligned numbersStrong fact acquisition, but struggles with comprehending conceptsNew concepts and procedures are acquired slowly and with struggle (must first understand visual concepts on a very concrete level before they can grasp the abstraction)May invert numbers, or have difficulty grouping numbers accurately into columnsTend to have marked difficulties grasping the visual form of mathematical concepts (i.e., may be better able to describe a parallelogram than to draw one)Often have difficulty seeing/grasping ‘big picture ideas’ (get stuck on details and struggle with ‘seeing the forest for the trees’
62Key Facts Related to Math Disabilities Across the Grade Span The verbal/semantic subtype is usually most obvious in the early primary grades, given the emphasis on math fact acquisition (many kids with NLD ‘do fine’ in math through third grade or so).The procedural and visual/spatial subtypes become more obvious as algorithmic and conceptual complexity increases!Bottom line: As procedural and conceptual complexity increase, the demands on the frontal and parietal lobes increase (Hale & Fiorello, 2004)
63Student Profiling to Inform Instruction and Learning Plan Student’s Name: _______________Attention/EFLanguageMemoryNeuromotorEmotionalNeuroProfileMath Fact SkillAlgorithm SkillMath ConceptsProblem SolvingAcademicProfileStrategies
66Learning to Remember:December 7, 2010Augusta Civic CenterEssential Brain-Based Strategies for Improving Students’ Memory & LearningChristopher Kaufman, Ph.D.
67Implications for Instruction BRINGING THE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY OFMATH INTO THE CLASSROOM
68Firstly: The state of affairs . . . (An empty glass)There has been relatively little in the way ofhigh quality math instruction research!Reading studies outnumber math studies ata ratio of 6:1
69Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge Conceptual knowledge has agreater influence on proceduralknowledge than the reverseStrongConceptualKnowledgeProceduralKnowledgeWeakSousa, 2004
70Key Research FindingAdults often underestimate the time it takes a child to use a newly learned mathematical strategy consistently (Shrager & Siegler, 1998, as cited by Gersten et al., 2005)
71Step One: Understand a Child’s Specific Problem(s) Look for deviations for normal development (re: the acquisition of counting and early arithmetic skills)Look for error patterns that are suggestive of weakness in the semantic/memory, procedural/algorithmic, and visual-spatial domains
72An Important First Intervention Step: Look for Error Patterns (Hale & Fiorello, 2004, p. 211) Math fact error (FE) – Child has not learned math fact, or does not automatically retrieve it from LTM (Teacher: Michael, what’s 4 X 4? Michael: Um, 44?)Operand error (OE) – Child performs one operation instead of another (e.g., for a 6 X 3 problem)Algorithm error (AE) – Child performs steps out of sequence, or follows idiosyncratic algorithm (i.e., attempts to subtract larger from smaller number)Place value error (PE) – Child carries out the steps in order, but makes a place value error (common among kids with executive functioning and visual/spatial deficits)Regrouping errors (RE) – Child regroups when not required, forgets to subtract from regrouped column during subtraction, or adds regrouped number before multiplication
73Example of an Algorithm Error (revealed via a ‘think aloud’ examination) (Hale & Fiorello, 2004, p. 211)64+ 13“First I look to see if it’s addition or subtraction. Okay, it’s addition, so you always go top to bottom and left to right. So I add 6 + 4, and that equals 10, and then equals 4. And then I add them together, top to bottom, and so equals 14.”14
75‘John has a problem with multiplication’ What kind of problem? How broad is the scope?Kids who can’t (despite adequate instruction and chances to practice) seem to recall the product of 8 X 7 have a fact recall difficulty (LTM deficiency – temporal lobe)Kids who have no difficulty recalling the product of 8 X 7, but can’t solve 16 X 7 on paper may have an algorithm process difficulty (working memory or arithmetic reasoning deficiency – frontal lobe or parietal lobe)
76THE CORE STRATEGIESEmphasize the development of an internal number line (in grades K and 1) to build number senseTeach the concept and the algorithm (not just the algorithm in isolation), and keep teaching the algorithm until masteryDistributed practice works better than massed practice (smaller doses of practice over time is better than a lot all at once)Emphasize the verbalization of strategies/algorithms as kids problem solve (and after they’ve arrived at a solution)Build automaticity of fact retrievalMinimize demands on working memory/simultaneous processing (encourage kids to download info from working memory to paper by encouraging thinking on paper)Enhance the explicit structure of math problems (using multiple colors, graph paper, boxing techniques, etc.)Body-involved, ‘kinesthetic learning’ is good!
78Meet Caleb Caleb’s a ‘feisty little guy’ (to quote his mother) who’s justentered kindergarten. He woresandals to school, but took them offsomewhere in the classroom and nowcan’t seem to find them. He’s knows hisprimary colors and all basic shapes,but his letter/number ID and formationskills seem low. He can countto 20 in a rote manner, but seemsunsure as to what the numbers mean(e.g., yesterday said that 4 was morethan 6). Also, his ability to count with1:1 correspondence is still shaky (canonly do it with direct adult support).He gets frustrated very easily in taskcontexts and is apt to cry and throwthings when stressed.
79What, exactly, is number sense? Definitions abound in the literature . . .Berch, 1998: Number sense is an emerging construct that refers to a child’s fluidity and flexibility with numbers, sense of what numbers mean, ability to perform mental mathematics, and ability (in real life contexts) ‘to look at the world and make magnitude comparisons.’
80Number Sense and Environmental Factors Most kids acquire number sense informally through interactions with parents and sibs before they enter kindergartenWell-replicated research finding: Kids of moderate to high SES enter kindergarten with much greater number sense than kids of low SES statusGriffin (1994) found that 96% of high SES kids knew the correct answer to the question, “Which is bigger, 5 or 4?” entering K. Only 18% of low SES kids could answer the question correctly (this study controlled for IQ level)Number sense skill in K and 1st grade is critical, as it leads to automatic use/retrieval of math info and is necessary to the solution of even the most basic arithmetic problems (Gersten, 2001)
81Building Number SenseIt’s critical that parents, during the preschool years, really talk to kids about numbers and amounts and magnitude (“Let’s count these stairs as we climb them!”)Head Start and other preschool programs for low SES kids should really push number concept games and related activities (just as they should push phonological awareness activities as a precursor reading skill)During the K and 1st grade years, it’s essential for children to develop a mental (internalized) number line and to ‘play’ with this line in various waysWithout strong number sense, kids often are unable to determine when a numeric response makes no sense (i.e., = 512)
83Building Number Sense: Some Concrete Strategies (Bley & Thorton, 2001) More or less than 10?8+4: Is this more than 10 or less than 10? (kids should check with manipulatives and number line work)What’s 5+5? Is more or less than that? How do you know?Variations for older gradesMore or less than ½? Ask students to circle in green all fractions on a sheet that are more than ½.Closer to 50 or 100? Have students circle in green those numbers that are closer to 50 than 100, using both visual and ‘mental’ number linesOver or under? Provide repeated instance in which students are asked to decide which of two given estimates is better and explain their reasoning.E.g., 652 – 298 =? A. Over 400 B. Under 400
84Building Number Sense: More Strategies (Bley & Thorton, 2001) 2. What can’t it be? Provide computational problems and a choice of two (or more) possible answers. Ask the children to predict which of the choices couldn’t be possible and to state why.Example: A = 65 B = 515Verbalized response: The answer can’t be 515. It’s not even 100, because is 100, and both numbers are less than 50.3. What’s closest? Ask the children to predict which of the answer choices is closest to the exact answer? How do you know?Example: 92 – 49 = ? A. 28 B. 48 C. 88It’s B. The problem is sort like 100 – 50, and the answer to that is 50, and so 48 is closest.
87Meet Katie . . .Katie is a generally shy and sweet-natured 7th grader with a longstanding speech/language impairment. Although her once profound articulation difficulties have abated in response to years of SL therapy, she continues to have a hard time with receptive language tasks of all sorts. She’s of basically average intelligence, but has gotten numerous accommodations over the years related to literacy tasks. Although math computation had been her area of relative strength, she’s had a much harder time in middle school now that the technical math vocabulary demands have really increased. Her father reports that she now “hates math” and says things like, “If they’d just show me what to do and make it clear, I could do it – I wish they’d just show me what theymean!”
88When language comprehension is the problem Carefully teach math vocabulary, with all the possible formsrelated to the different operations posted clearly in the classroomAdditionSumAddPlusCombineIncreased byMore thanTotalSubtractionTake awayRemainingLess thanFewer thanReduced byDifference ofMultiplicationProductMultiplied byTimesOf3 X 3 = 3(3)DivisionQuotientPerA (as in gas is $3 a gallon)Percent (divide by 100)
89Operations Language Chart in a Simpler Form Add = Plus = +Subtract = Take Away = Minus = –Multiply = Times = XDivide = Divided By = Per = ÷
90When language comprehension is the problem Link language to the concrete (have a clear visual and kinesthetic examples of all concepts readily available)Teach math facts and basic vocabulary in a variety of ways (brains love multi-modal instruction!)Use lots of manipulatives to clearly demonstrate ‘taking away,’ ‘total,’ ‘divisor.’Make liberal use of kinesthetic/multisensory demonstrationsHave kids put math vocabulary into their own words (and then check for the accuracy of these words!)
91Illustrating the Pythagorean Theorem caTeacher: John, can you remindus what an hypotenuse is?John: Um, nope – I haven’t gota clue . . .Teacher: John, we’ve spent thelast two days talking about thisstuff.John: So?! I don’t remember,All right?! What’s your problem?!Geez!!b13512
92Other language targeted strategies Trying to always present a concrete visual (‘draw it out’) whenever you present the oral/verbal form of math concept (kids who have significant language deficiencies should have quick ‘cheat sheets’ available)Keep verbal instructions short and to the pointHaving kids read instructions into a tape recorder and then play them back
93When factual (declarative) memory is the problem Ensure that the child clearly grasps the concept (i.e., that 3 X 4 mean ‘3 four times’)If the child doesn’t grasp the concept, then teach the concept in multiple ways until he does (kids grasp/recall math facts much better when they ‘get’ the concepts behind them)Drills (i.e., flashcards) really work (kids retain rote information best when it’s acquired/practice right before sleep)Fact family sorts (e.g,. Sorting flash cards by into ‘families’)Use games (e.g,. ‘Multiplication War’ - see supplemental handout)Graph progress with the kid (kids often love to see their improvement, and the graphing, by itself, is a worthwhile math activity)
94Three Kinds of Math Facts Autofacts – Math facts a student knows automaticallyStratofacts – Math facts a student can figure out using an an idiosyncratic strategy (i.e,. counting on fingers and using hashmarks)“Clueless” Facts – Math facts a student cannot recall or access at allGimme the facts, Madam,just the facts . .Meltzer et al., 2006
95“Terrific Tens” Strategy 123456789987654321+101010101010101010Meltzer et al., 2006
96And then there’s good ‘ol ‘Touch Math’ Developers and it’s proponents claim thatit ‘bridges manipulation and memorization’Also often called a ‘mental manipulative’techniqueMulti-sensory, in that kids simultaneously see,say, hear, and (most importantly) touch numbersAs they learn to count and perform an arrayOf computational algorithmsPublished by Innovative Learning ConceptsCurriculum now extends into secondary grades
97Multiplication Fact Strategies 0 Rule: 0 times any number is 01’s Rule: 1 times any number is the number itself2’ Rule: Counting by two’s5’s Rule: The answer must end in a 5 or 0 (e.g., 35 or 60)10’s Rule: The answer must end in a 0 (10, 40, 80, etc.)9’s Rule: Two-hands counting rule2 hands ‘Rule’ when it comesTo solving the tricky 9’s!Meltzer et al., 2006
98A key developmental asset in teaching kids division and division facts . . .Greed (balanced by an insistence on fairness)“How many do we each get?”
100Meet Andrew . .Andrew, a fourth grader, knows his multiplication and division factscold, but has had gobs of difficulty ‘getting’ double/multiple digitmultiplication and has had even more difficulty performing even the most basic aspects of long division (to quote his teacher: “He’s just so all over the place with it!”). Although Andrew is a reasonably well-motivated youngster who’s attended some extra help sessions with his teacher (and will seemingly ‘get’ the multiplication and division algorithms in these sessions), he seemingly ‘forgets’ the procedures by the time he gets home or to school the next day (Mom: “It’s like I’m always at square one with him on this stuff”). Completing assignments of all kinds is also a big issue for this kid.
101The most important thing to remember in helping ADHD (“EFD”) kids with math It’s all about . . .Diminishing demandson working memory
102Mastery of algorithms is important in the end, but . . Go slowly, in a very stepwise manner, and scaffold, scaffold, scaffold!!Download as much as possibleinto the child’s instructionalenvironment, with emphasis givento presentation of algorithm stepsin easy to follow formats
103A key distinction: Factual Memory vs. Procedural Memory Refers to an individual’s ability to recall discrete bits/units of information(e.g,.7 X 7 = 49, the capital of France is Paris, my mother’s middle name is Dorothy, ‘sh’ makes the /sh/ sound)Working memory demand:Fairly minimalProcedural memoryRefers to an individual’s ability to remembers processes; that is, procedural stepse.g., How to bisect an angle, how to swing a golf club, how to bake blueberry muffins, how to divide 495 by 15Working memory demand:Moderate to marked, depending upon the process being recalled
104Helping EFD (‘ADHD’) Kids with Math: First Steps To the extent possible, avoid multiple step directions (and good luck with that . . .)Have the kids do one thing (and only thing) at a time (e.g., “Let’s just first circle all the signs on the page” or “let’s just highlight the key words in this word problem”)Mel Levine: Break algorithms down into their most basic sub-steps and carefully, slowly teach each sub-step.
105Thus, in teaching two digit by one digit multiplication (47 X 6) First ensure the child’s single digit multiplication facts are solid (or that he is at least facile in the use of the chart/grid)Second, achieve mastery of single by double digit multiplication without regrouping (24 X 2) (will likely need lots of massed practice at this stage)Third, introduce the concept of ‘carrying’ in double digit multiplication, but do so in a manner that makes use of the parts of the times tables a kid has mastered (e.g., 24 X 5) (again, lots of massed practice here)Fourth, bring in more challenging multiplication elements from the higher, ‘scarier’ end of the times table (e.g., 87 X 9)Than move, after mastery, by adding a third digit to the top number, and then a fourth, always building in plenty of time for massed practice, and distributed practice in the form of reviews of earlier, easier stuff.
106Helpful Strategies to Aid Algorithm Acquisition and Practice Graph paper rocks!Box templates are even betterBox templates that include written reminders are even betterBox templates that include written reminders and include color coordination are even better
107+ A good multiple digit multiplication ‘box template’ X (Adapted from Bley & Thorton, 2001)
108+ A better multiple digit multiplication ‘box template’ 7 2 3 3 2 X 1 4462169+23136(Adapted from Bley & Thorton, 2001)
110Divide Multiply Subtract Bring Down Repeat (if necessary) Pneumonics/Heuristics: Excellent Ways to HelpEFD Kids Learn and Retain Arithmetic AlgorithmsDoes McDonalds Sell Burgers Done Rare?DivideMultiplySubtractBring Down Repeat (if necessary)
111Improving Error Checking P.O.U.N.C.EP – Change to a different color pen or pencil to change your mindset from that of a student to a teacherO – Check Operations (Order right?)U – Underline the question (in a word problem) or the directions. Did you check the question and follow the directions?N – Check the numbers. Did you copy them down correctly. In the right order? Columns straight?C – Check you calculations. Check for the types of calculation errors you tend to make.E – Does your answer agree with your estimate? Does your answer make sense?Top Three HitsThe 3 most common errorsa kid exhibits in mathExample:Steven’s Top 3 Hits:Misreading directionsMisreading signsArriving at errors that can’t possibly make sense.
113For Kids with NLD: Emphasize the Verbal Kids with pronounced visuo-spatial comprehension/integration deficits often struggle with forming in LTM visual images of objects and particularly struggle with visual representations of concepts (i.e., an isosceles triangle)Emphasize the verbal (simple, direct, concrete) over the visual whenever possibleThe goal for these students is to construct a strong verbal model for quantities and their relationships in place of the visual-spatial mental representation that most people develop.Descriptive verbalizations also need to become firmly established in regard to when to apply math procedures and how to carry out the steps of written computation.Complex visuals can really freak out kids with visual/spatial weakness (avoid busy graphs, maps, and charts)
114Other Strategies Targeting Visual-Spatial Weakness Fewer items on a pageAvoid flashcards (too visual – better to do rote learning via auditory exercises – e.g., via rhymes)Use blocks to isolate problems on the page (see next slide)Emphasize the use of concrete manipulatives in the teaching of abstract concepts (being able pick up, feel, and talk about manipulatives helps these kids)Encourage these kids to ‘think on paper’ (help them draw very simple pictures – stick figures -- to represent what is going on in a math problem (Levine)Kinesthetic learning experiences may be particularly helpful for this population, providing clear verbal explanations accompany the demonstrations
115Addition (‘plus’): Do these first Subtraction (‘minus’): Do these next 47+5688-4583+3145-2429+9362-3968+5596-48
116Division Cards – A Great Device for NLD Kids Problem:Question 1: Is there a number which can be multiplied by 5, and be equal to or less than 2?Answer: No, and so zero is placed above the 2 and the card is shifted to the right to get a bigger number.Question 2: Is there a number which can be multiplied by 5, and be equal to or less than 25?Answer: Yes, and the number is 5, so a 5 is placed above the dividend.Etc.055 2 5John’sDivisionCard
117MAKING THE ABSTRACT CONCRETE A) The problem: What’s 5/8 of 16?B) Concrete illustration of 5/8:___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___C) Concrete illustration of 5/8 of 16___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___********D) Answer is 10(Adapted from Bley & Thorton, 2001)
118“Buy Out”: A great technique for kids who are ‘motivationally challenged’ 34X 4556X 1389X 64Operates from the perspectiveThat few things are as motivatingAs the chance to get out of workThus, kids are motivated to workBy the opportunity to ‘work their wayOut of work’E.g.: For every two problems you do,you get to cross out one!92X 3576X 5683X 8369X 3178X 6427X 5939X 3771X 8290X 90