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Traffic Data For Pavement 2012 FHWA Highway Information Seminar, Arlington, VA Tianjia Tang, PE, Ph.D. Chief, Travel Monitoring and Surveys Division 421.

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Presentation on theme: "Traffic Data For Pavement 2012 FHWA Highway Information Seminar, Arlington, VA Tianjia Tang, PE, Ph.D. Chief, Travel Monitoring and Surveys Division 421."— Presentation transcript:

1 Traffic Data For Pavement 2012 FHWA Highway Information Seminar, Arlington, VA Tianjia Tang, PE, Ph.D. Chief, Travel Monitoring and Surveys Division 421

2 Objective To enhance the knowledge of the traffic data collection and processing professionals on the needs of traffic data for pavement design 422

3 Pavement Basics Surface Base Sub-base Sub-grade 423

4 Stress and Strain tension compression 424

5 Pavement Basics Pavement is designed and constructed to meet future needs. Past Future Past Present Future 425

6 Pavement Design A set of plans covering types of materials to be used, depths of various layers, treatments of various layers, and ways to construct various layers to meet a set of performance goals (e.g., service life…) meaning to withstand cumulative deteriorations occurred during the entire design life (e.g., 25 years) 426

7 Traffic Data For Existing Roadways Past and present traffic data are obtained from field observations through collection. Future traffic data are obtained through traffic demand modeling. Past and present data are used for trend analysis and calibrate and validate traffic demand models. 427

8 Traffic Data For New Roadways Past and present traffic data do not exist. Future traffic data are obtained through traffic demand modeling. Past and present data are used for trend analysis and calibrate and validate traffic demand models. 428

9 Concept of ESAL 429

10 Equivalent Single Axle Load (ESAL) One ESAL is known to cause a quantifiable and standardized amount of damage to the pavement structure equivalent to one pass of a single 18,000-pound, dual-tire axle with all four tires inflated to 110 psi. 4210

11 Compute Number of ESAL AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement of Structures The ESAL method is the so called “empirical” method. 4211

12 Compute ESAL W 18 = D D x D L X ẇ 18 Where W 18 is the ESAL for the design lane. W 18 represents the ultimate traffic data need for pavement design D D is the traffic directional factor for a two way roadway. D L is a lane traffic splitting factor for a roadway having more than one lane in each direction ẇ 18 is cumulative two way ESAL projected for a roadway segment. 4212

13 Compute ẇ 18 Information needed: 1.The number of axles for various axle configurations under various axle loads from Traffic Demand Modeling 2.Axle load equivalence factors - to be obtained from AASHTO’s Guide Appendix D 4213

14 Compute ẇ

15 Compute ẇ

16 Compute ẇ

17 Critical Traffic Data 4217

18 Mechanistic-Empirical Method 4218

19 Traffic Data Needed for Input 1: Opening Year Two Way Annual Average Daily Truck Traffic 4219

20 Traffic Data Needed for Input 2: Percent of Truck Traffic in Design Direction % 4220

21 Traffic Data Needed for Input 3: Percent of Truck Traffic in Design Lane % 4221

22 Traffic Data Needed for Input 4: Truck Monthly Adjustment Factor The Truck Monthly Adjustment Factor (MAF) reflects truck travel patterns throughout the year 4222

23 Traffic Data Needed for Input MAF 4223

24 Traffic Data Needed for Input MAF 4224

25 Traffic Data Needed for Input -MAF MAF for month i and class j truck 4225

26 Traffic Data Needed for Input 5: Vehicle Class Distribution Vehicle class distribution (VCD) refers to AADTT distribution among the 10 vehicle types 4226

27 Traffic Data Needed for Input 6: Truck Hourly Distribution Factor (THDF) Truck hourly distribution factor refers to the percentage of hourly AADTT among a 24 hour time period starting at midnight. There are 24 THDFs 4227

28 Traffic Data Needed for Input 4228

29 Traffic Data Needed for Input Axle Load Factor FHWA vehicles in class 4 to 13 can have a variety of axle configurations including single axle, tandem axle, tridem axle, and quad axle 4229

30 Traffic Data Needed for Input Single Axle Configuration Axle Load Factor There are 39 axle weight groups for single axle configuration vehicles. The axle weight group ranges from 3,000 lbs to 41,000 lbs with increments of 1,000 lbs. The computation of the ALF data is based on MAADT for a particular vehicle class and axle weight group 4230

31 Traffic Data Needed for Input Tandem, Tridem, and Quad Axle Vehicles For tandem axle vehicles, the axle weight group starts at 6,000 lbs and ends at 82,000 lbs with increment s of 2000 lbs. For both tridem and quad axle vehicles, the axle weight group start at 12,000 lbs and ends at 102,000 lbs with increments of 3000 lbs. 4231

32 Traffic Data Needed for Input – Single Axle 4232

33 Traffic Data Needed for Input 7: Number of Axle Types per Truck Class The number of axles per vehicle class for a given axle configuration is an annual average number of axles per vehicle category (per vehicle class and vehicle axle configuration). 4233

34 Traffic Data Needed for Input 4234

35 Traffic Data Needed for Input 8: Axle Spacing Axle spacing data are only applicable to tandem, tridem and quad vehicles. It is the distance between two consecutive tandem, tridem, and quad axles. 4235

36 Traffic Data Needed for Input 9: Average Axle Width: The distance between the two outside edges of an axle is defined as axle width 4236

37 Traffic Data Needed for Input 10: Wheelbase The distance between the steering and the first device axle of a tractor or a heavy single unit 4237

38 Traffic Data Needed for Input 4238

39 Traffic Data Needed for Input 4239

40 Summary Time frame Pavement layers ESAL Mechanistic and Empirical 4240

41 Q/A 4241

42 Thanks you! Traffic Data For Pavement 2012 FHWA Highway Information Seminar, Arlington, VA Tianjia Tang, PE, Ph.D. Chief, Travel Monitoring and Surveys Division 42


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