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COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 421 TUNNELS
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 422 General Tunnel Inspections present unique challenges Track Time Sensitive Good lighting source required Various types of Tunnels and –Construction Materials Conditions found may warrant Expert Evaluation of structure
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 423 SAFETY Confined / Enclosed Space Fumes from motorized Inspection Vehicle Adequate Lighting Walking Hazards- Wet / Ice Wildlife
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 424 External Environment Note areas over & around Portals Vegetation Ground Water Adjacent Slopes Rock Slopes
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 425 Internal Environment Natural Gas Pockets / Ground Water Conduits for Utilities / Fiber Optics Cut-Outs for Inspectors Drainage Pumps
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 426 Vegetation Adjacent Slopes
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 427 Rock Slopes
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 428 Portals (Tunnel Inspection) Openings at each end of Tunnel Headwalls / Wingwalls Concrete/Stone/Timber/Natural Rock –Height of Headwall / Wingwalls –Stability / Structural Integrity Lateral movement / water seepage –Note Condition / Deficiency Timber Decay / Concrete Cracks,Deterioration
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 429 Headwalls(date)/Wingwalls
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4210 Natural Rock Portal
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4211 Drains in Wall
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4212 Tunnel Shaft Fundamental Tunnel Structure –Detailed Inspection Notes Thru Tunnel –Permanent Stationing Makers Thru Tunnel Various Types of Construction or Combination of Types of Construction -Natural Rock
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4213 Natural Rock
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4214 Natural Rock-Anchor Bolts
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4215 Timber & Steel Sets Timber Posts on Sides of Tunnel with Timber cut at angles to form Arch Timber Mud Sills on Stone or Concrete Spacing of Timber Sets determined by stability of the surrounding material Steel Sets are fabricated similar to the Timber Sets construction with Steel Beams
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4216 Original Construction
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4217 Timber Portal /Shed
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4218 Steel Set / Lagging
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4219 Steel Set / Lagging
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4220 Lagging / Cribbing Lagging-Timber or Steel placed horizontally between Timber or Steel Sets Lagging can fully line the tunnel or support only unstable areas Cribbing/Packing: Material Placed behind Lagging or Liner to fill void between lagging and failed material.
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4221 Cribbing Behind Liner
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4222 Concrete / Masonry Reinforced Concrete Walls / Arch Masonry Walls / Arch ( Brick, Stone)
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4223 Concrete Lined Tunnel
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4224 Brick Lined Tunnel
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4225 Steel Lining Corrugated Steel Ribbed Tunnel Liner Plates
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4226 Tunnel Floor Natural Ground when Tunnel was cut Struts below ballast to each side of Tunnel Reinforced Concrete
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4227 Problems / Conditions Natural / Exposed Material –Cracks, Openings, Movement –New pieces of Rock on floor –Loose Rock Bolts, Anchors
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4228 Material on Tunnel Floor
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4229 Loose Rock Bolts
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4230 Problems / Conditions Timber Sets / Lining –Decay; Sound and/or Drill for voids –Bottom Sill; Bearing Area, Crushing, Bulging –Joints, Gaps, Alignment –Bolts, Drift Pins
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4231 Problems / Conditions Steel Sets / Lining –Benchwall: Anchors, Corrosion –Columns / Struts: Corrosion, Section Loss, Buckling / Alignment –Bulging in Walls / Arch
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4232 Failed Steel Liner
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4233 Problems / Conditions Lagging: Timber, Steel –Decay, Corrosion, Section loss –Openings at Seams / Joints, Bulging –Ground or Failures behind lagging
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4234 Problems / Conditions Concrete / Masonry Lining –New Cracks, Spalling, Bulging –Movement at Construction Joints –Water Seeping, weep holes –Brick / Concrete on floor –Movement, Hinging at Spring Line –Bulging of Walls and Arch –Benchwall / Footer
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4235 Failed Concrete Liner
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4236 Problems / Conditions Tunnel Floor / Roadbed –Track Surface –Muddy / Pumping / Fouled Ballast –Drainage Ditches / Culverts Train Impacts / Clearance –Signs of Impacts –Verify Dimensions- Top/Rail & Centerline Track
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4237 Impact Damage
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4238 Tunnel Inspection Checklist PORTALS –Soil / Rock Stability –Condition of Headwall and Wingwalls –Drainage behind Headwall and Wingwalls –Surface Drainage
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4239 Tunnel Inspection Checklist SHAFT –Clearances-Bulges in Ceilings / Walls –Fractured or Scaling Stone –Condition of Rock Bolts and Anchors –Condition of Timber/ Steel Sets /Lagging
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4240 Tunnel Inspection Checklist SHAFT –Condition of Concrete / Masonry Lining Bulges Cracks Tuckpointing Surface voids
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4241 Tunnel Inspection Checklist SHAFT –Tunnel Floor Debris on floor indicating problems Buckling or heave Fouled Ballast Drainage Water / Ice accumulation
COPYRIGHT © AREMA 2008 of 4242 EMERGENCY If the bridge inspector encounters a tunnel condition that affects the safe operations of trains in, or near the tunnel, contact the railroad dispatcher and responsible authority to stop any trains and arrange for immediate repairs. Criteria for limits of acceptable/tolerable conditions must be provided by the Railroad Owner or their designated engineer based on the principles of acceptable rating contained in the appropriate chapter of the AREMA Manual for Railway Engineering
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