Individuals with disabilities are restricted by access, opportunity and attitudes.
Adapted physical education is physical education designed to meet the needs of children with disabilities. It is a service that children receive not the placement (Lieberman, 2010). Adapted physical education programs are those that have the same objectives as the regular physical education program, but in which adjustments are made in the regular offerings to meet the needs and abilities of exceptional students (Dunn, 1997).
Based on your beliefs and values: All individuals at all ages can benefit from physical activity. All individuals can learn when adaptations are incorporated into instruction. All individuals deserved access to high-quality instruction that enhances self esteem and contributes to a healthy lifestyle.
Physical Education followed the Medical Model (1900 – 1950) Students with disabilities did not participate in Physical Education or they were placed in corrective physical education, specifically students with physical disabilities. Many students with cognitive or behavioral disabilities were in institutions and participated in recreational activities if physically able.
Medical model sees deficits, activity is to fix what is wrong. The approach is low achievement expectations. (Not going to get better) Social model views acceptance of difference. Sees ability to learn and improve. Looks for possibilities of what can be.
A state-supported institution for children with intellectual disabilities. The school was designed for 4,000, but by 1965 it had a population of 6,000. At the time it was the biggest state-run institution for people with mental disabilities in the United States. Conditions and questionable medical practices and experiments prompted Senator Robert Kennedy to call it a "snake pit."..
Public outcry led to its closure in 1987, and to federal legislation protecting the disabled Willowbrook The Last Great Disgrace 1972 by Geraldo Rivera Video: Youtube
Provided grants to states to initiate, expand and improve educational programs for children with disabilities. Created the Bureau of Education for the Handicapped Most schools continued to avoid offering services
Section 504. Reinforces the right of students with disabilities to participate in physical education courses, fitness assessment, interscholastic athletics, and intramural or club athletics. If students cannot fully or safely participate comparable opportunities must be offered.
First national law requiring free appropriate public education (FAPE) to all students with disabilities ages 3-21. The law includes that Physical Education is an academic area (a direct service) and should be made available to all students with disabilities through appropriate assessment, programs designed to meet specific needs Individual Education Program (IEP) and that the programs occur in a least restrictive environment (LRE).
The first consideration for placement for children with disabilities is that they are educated with typical children in the General Physical Education program. Unless: The child needs specially designed physical education as prescribed in the childs individualized education program.
Required states to expand educational services to children from birth to age 5. Developed and implemented early intervention services for infants and toddlers with disabilities.
Replaced the term handicapped with disability. Defined 13 categories of disabilities. Physical Education is defined to include; physical and motor fitness, fundamental motor skills and patterns and skills in aquatics, dance, and individual and group games and sports (intramural and lifetime sports).
Civil rights law that enforces the non-discrimination of persons with disabilities. Public or private employment Public accommodations Public services and programs Transportation Telecommunications (TDD)
Assures the right of all individuals with disabilities to a free appropriate pubic education (FAPE). Age: Birth to 21 years Early intervention for infants to 2 years Preschool for ages 3-5 Transitional plan for age 14 to vocational training. School accessibility
Shifts focus from opportunity to meaningful learning that can be measured. Requires progress reports for children with disabilities that are the same as those for children without disabilities. Reinforces that special education is not a place, rather a set of services to support the needs of children with disabilities to succeed in the general education classroom.
Students with disabilities have access to the general curriculum including Health and Physical Education regardless of placement.
Orthopedic impairment Other health impairment Specific learning disability Speech or language impairment Traumatic brain injury Visual impairment including blindness
Full time General Physical Education,(GPE) no modifications needed GPE with adaptations GPE with in class support by APE specialist, paraeducator and/or peer. Part time APE and Part Time GPE Reverse Inclusion Self – contained APE with a whole class or an individual session. In Home or Separate school Home school or Hospital setting
Teachers who teach students with disabilities need to be: Accepting of Individual Differences Creative Organized Patient Supportive and Caring Responsible Flexible