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Susan L. Gabel, PhD. Study of the network of relations between various aspects of the environment. Network of relations in higher education: *People *Purposes.

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Presentation on theme: "Susan L. Gabel, PhD. Study of the network of relations between various aspects of the environment. Network of relations in higher education: *People *Purposes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Susan L. Gabel, PhD

2 Study of the network of relations between various aspects of the environment. Network of relations in higher education: *People *Purposes Places Policies


4 *Revolutionary massification Unprecedented in scope & diversity Whos excluded? *Shifting priorities & purposes Equity & access Internationalization of policies & programs

5 $1 million awarded to National-Louis University Private non-sectarian university 5 campuses in Chicago metropolitan area Student body: Approx. 15,000 total 75% female 54% part time Non/white 27% Average age 32 (undergraduate), 38 ( graduate) Large number single parents; poor families; first generation college Open access university

6 Add google map here


8 Unprecedented in scope & diversity

9 Globally, 26% of age cohorts in tertiary education Belgium (Flemish) average age 21.1 US community colleges 42% are 22-39 16% are 40 & older Average age of NLU students Undergraduate 35 Graduate 38

10 US community colleges 60% female NLU 74% female 53.4% female in Belgium (Flemish) HE Gender parity in developing world

11 Belgium 1.26 Cambodia 0.56 Japan 0.88 Jordan 1.10 Kenya 0.57 South Korea 0.67 United Kingdom 1.40 United States 1.41 United Nations Statistics Division (2009)

12 Usually measured by education level of parents. Low socio-economic students under-represented internationally. Minority status

13 Rural Mexico: 90% are 1 st in family in HE India: 5% set asides for scheduled castes, disabled, women Brazil: set asides for Afro-Brazilians Belgium (Flemish): funding weights Open Universities: 1.8 m-Indira Gandhi National Open U. ¼ m-U. South Africa 27 countries-Africa Virtual U. Zimbabwe Open U.

14 0


16 57.8% of 18 year olds start Bacheloriate program Average age 21.1 53.4% female 50% have fathers with university credentials 78% educated school leavers in 2005 had jobs in 2006 88% high educated 68.4% medium educated 45.3% low educated



19 *Access & equity Mobility Degree completion Readiness for employment Lifelong learning Student centered learning


21 Gender parity index Participation rates Attainment rates Educational equity index

22 Usher & Cervenan (2005)





27 When women are excluded from HE, disabled women are disproportionately affected. When attainment or completion is minimal, disabled students are disproportionately affected. When educational equity is low or when HE does not represent the diversity in society, disabled students are disproportionately affected.

28 To increase employability To enhance personal development To educate for active citizenship


30 Gallup (2009)




34 Equitable access & completion Reflect the diversity of the population Must provide adequate conditions by removing all barriers to study: Improve learning environment Create economic feasibility Flexible learning paths

35 Gallup (2009)



38 Think-pair-share

39 10% worlds population Worlds largest minority 20% worlds poorest people are disabled In OECD countries, under-represented in HE Unemployment as high as 80% Most segregated & least educated: people with intellectual disabilities Also significantly isolated: people with psychiatric impairments

40 Mutually reinforcing layers of disadvantage…restrict opportunity (p. 151). Disability is one of the least visible but most potent factors in educational marginalization (p. 195). It is social, institutional and attitudinal barriers that limit the full inclusion of people with disabilities (p. 181).

41 <1% self-identify 10% identify in census 30% of disabled attend least technological campus 68% in National College of Education

42 Mild, Moderate, Severe hearing loss Back pain, needs cane Fibromyalgia Addisons disease Degenerative disc and joint disease Diabetes

43 Epilepsy Chronic pain Dyslexia Multiple sclerosis Attention deficit with/without hyperactivity Bi-polar disorder Hypertension Learning disability

44 Light sensitivitysevere migraines Unable to walk or stand for long periods Polio Asthma Anxiety Depression

45 Heart condition Learning comprehension Reading comprehension Severe respiratory disease Poor vision Carpal tunnel Scoliosis Pinched nerve in spine

46 Poor short term memory Torn ligament in right hand70% function left Back injury Cancercancer treatments Panic attacks Narcolepsy Traumatic brain injury

47 Paraplegia Vision impairment Congenital loss of hand Severe clinical depression Blind HIV/AIDS Cerebral palsy

48 I have learning disabilities which can make online learning extremely difficult. I have MS, so my disability will vary with my "flare ups" that I experience. I had a stroke several years ago, I have difficulty with comprehension of written material and blindness in the right eye.

49 Several brain surgeries with 3 shunt placements. Ventricular Atrial shunt manages csf fluid in brain. Narcolepsy-- uncontrollable tiredness at inappropriate times throughout the day.

50 Most NLU students will not self identify Self identification requirement insufficient Most NLU students have invisible conditions Chronic health impairments are the highest incidence conditions Age related

51 I dont know if my coordinators wanted to acknowledge I had a disability even though I mentioned it in my papers. I wrote about it but I think it was dismissed.

52 I dont think they know how to address the fact that there is a person in front of them with a disability, a learning disability. Maybe they were embarrassed that Id gone through these courses and they still couldnt pass me.

53 Im one of those people that fall through the cracks. And now Im at the point where I dont know what to do anymore. I dont know if Im marketable. Ive tried to become marketable, but Im so afraid of going out and get a job because I dont have a bachelors.

54 They get the sheet from the Office of Diversity, they look it over [and say] its fine. Then the next week, we dont have notes, we dont see anything, and you struggle through.

55 One teacher said they didnt have the money to make copies, and that makes me hit the ceiling.

56 Common sense tells you, whats he going to write notes with; whats he going to write things down with? So Id have to put my notebook in my lap. It was awkward. I dropped the stuff half the time. When youre on a desk you can write.

57 One girl was kosher, she was orthodox Jew, and she couldnt touch anybodyand the teacher had more of a fit thinking about [whether] she forgot about this girl than the fact that I cant use both my arms.

58 Think-pair-share

59 Reasonable adjustments requirements in tension with other policies. Student accommodation needs in tension with teacher preferences. Student subtle requests for help in tension with other competing responsibilities and messages. Students invisible and hyper-visible, often at the same time

60 HE is public good with social responsibilities Access is not enough, must ensure successful participation & completion Quality criteria Critical & independent thought Lifelong learning Innovation diversity Must guarantee equal access Flexible entry pathways through prior experience

61 Respect for inherent dignity, individual autonomy including the freedom to make one's own choices, and independence of persons Non-discrimination Full and effective participation and inclusion in society Respect for difference and acceptance of persons with disabilities as part of human diversity and humanity

62 Equality of opportunity Accessibility Equality between men and women Respect for the evolving capacities of children with disabilities and respect for the right of children with disabilities to preserve their identities

63 Article 24(5) States Parties shall ensure that persons with disabilities are able to access general tertiary education, vocational training, adult education and lifelong learning without discrimination and on an equal basis with others. To this end, States Parties shall ensure that reasonable accommodation is provided to persons with disabilities.

64 Given unprecedented scope & diversity, whats reasonable for Middle aged or elderly students Culturally diverse immigrants Women who are pregnant Single parents Working students Disabled students Students with chronic health impairments Low socio-economic students Religious minority students


66 Minimize tension between policy, pedagogy, and accommodating students. De-stigmatize accommodations with student-centered adjustments. Build curriculum & instruction using Universal Design for Learning principles.


68 --------- (2009). The Bologna Process 2020: The European Higher Education Area in the new decade. Communiqué of the conference of the European Ministers responsible for higher education. Leuven and Louvain-la-Neuve, 28-29 April 2009. Altbach, P. G., Reisberg, L., & Rumbley, L. E. (2009). Global trends in higher education: Tracking an academic revolution. Paris: UNESCO. European Commission. (2010). The EU contribution to the European Higher Education Area. Luxembourg: European Union. Eurydice. (2010). Focus on higher education in Europe 2010: The impact of the Bologna Process. Brussels: Eurydice. Gallup Organization. (2009). Students and higher education reform: Survey among students in higher education institutions in the EU member states, Croatia, Iceland, Norway and Turkey. Budapest: Gallup Organization Hungary. Huys, I., Debackere, K., & De Kock, L. (2009). Higher education in the Flemish community of Belgium, the French Community of Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Brussels: Expertisecentrum O&O Monitoring van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, in collaboration with the Flemish Ministry of Education and Training. Shah, T. (2006). UNESCO. (2009). World conference on higher education: The new dynamics of higher education and research for social change and development. Paris: UNESCO. UNESCO. (2010a). Reaching the marginalized. Global monitoring report 20010. Paris: UNESCO. UNESCO (2010b). Some facts about persons with disabilities. Retrieved May 5, 2010 from

69 United Nations Statistics Division. (2009). Millennium Development Goals Database. Retrieved May 16, 2010 from Usher, A., & Cervenan, A. (2005). Global higher education rankings 2005. Toronto: Educational Policy Institute.

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