A Hyphenated Reality The hyphen motif aptly performs the migrant condition of between here and there, a liminal space of betweenness and transition, where internal and external worlds, here and there, past and present, intersect. This intersection point, marked by hyphenation, always performs across multiple borders and thereby emphasises a spatial-temporal liminal register experienced by many transnationals.
A Hyphenated Reality In textual practice a hyphen is a punctuation sign that connects and separates two different entities. As such, here the hyphen begins to evoke an interesting spatial- temporal paradigm for transnationals, who are placed between two or more divided geographies, sociographies, and cultural identities. As well as being a link between multiple series of dual identities and conditions, the hyphen can simultaneously signify an ambiguous area of liminality – a psychological space of neither here nor there, and undecidability of identity and belonging, which, on various levels, is symptomatic of many transnationals. Yoka van Dyk, Hyphenated Living: Between Longing and Belonging: An Exposition of Displacement as Liminality in the Transnational Condition. (2005)
Socio-Cultural Designations: Latino vs. Hispanic Hispanic and Latino are not identical terms though often used interchangeably. Hispanic, from the Latin word for Spain, encompasses all Spanish-speaking peoples whose cultural heritage is from Spain. Latino, meaning "Latin in Spanish, probably comes from a shortening of the Spanish word latinoamericano, and refers more exclusively to persons from communities in Latin America.
Demographics 2012 US: 50 million plus (16%) – largest US minority group VA: 671,000 plus (8.2%) Culpeper Co: 4200 (8.9%) Culpeper (Town): 2800 (17%) 2050 Between now and 2050: Immigrants will comprise 93% of growth of US working-age population By 2050 – 30% of US population will be Latino Latinos are youngest US minority group 1-in-5 schoolchildren is Latino 1-in-4 newborns is Latino 17% - Latino high school dropout rate
Latino Generations 1 st Generation Born outside the US, its territories or possessions (foreign born) Can be naturalized US citizens, legal immigrants, or undocumented immigrants 2 nd Generation Born in the US (or brought to the US at a very young age) Have at least one foreign-born parent US citizens by birth if born in the US 3 rd Generation Born in the US with both parents also born or raised in the US US citizens by birth
Identity Formation Natural progression OR Hybrid formation?
Generational Identities First-Generation Latinos possess a strong bond with their native country, cultures, and values. Second-Generation Latinos cultural bond is mixed and not uniform.
Latin America is… …immense not only in its sizetwice the area of Europe, and stretching from the Rio Grande in Texas to Cape Horn in Patagoniabut in its range of cultural and literary expression. What we call Latin American culture is a composite of the rich and diverse output of 20 sovereign countries. Each had its unique struggle for independence and particular ways in which it evolved after the end of colonization. http://alexanderstreet.com/pr oducts/laww.htm
Generational Identities First-Generation Latinos possess an interdependent, collective-expressive or group-oriented identity. Second- Generation Latinos blend this identity with a more individual-expressive identity.
Generational Identities First-Generation and Second-Generation Latinos possess different language skills and abilities, which affect cultural affinity, social adaptation and generational roles.
Robert Suro, Director Pew Hispanic Center What Ive concluded from looking at a variety of surveys is that exposure to American ways through the acquisition of English produces absorption of those ways. Certainly, not every aspect of the American experience gets adopted, but enough does to show that a significant process of assimilation is taking place: people change when they come to the United States and the change accelerates when a great big doorway into their hearts and minds is opened by language. (emphasis added)
Generational Attitudes Trust of those outside the Latino community is not easily given, especially from first-generation, Spanish-dominant Latinos
Generational Attitudes Both first- and second-generation Latinos believe in the value of education. Cultural knowledge among first-generation Latinos parents plays a large role in their approach to education and to parental involvement in their childrens education.
How do the Latino Generations View Their World? 1st Generation: Emphasis placed on Latino in Latino-American; worldview reflects native culture Language is Spanish dominant Maintain more of an interdependent, group identity Educational attainment is generally low Trust is extremely hard to come by, especially for those outside the community 2nd Generation: Emphasis placed on the - (hyphen) in Latino-American; worldview is mixed, often more American than Latin American, but personal stress felt by individuals is real Language is mixed; both English and Spanish, though English usually is dominant Maintain a mixed identity, emphasizing both individual and group For those born in US, educational achievement can be high; for those who grew up in the US but born outside US, education can be low where academic achievement is unattainable Trust not as hard to come by, though still there is much wariness of others 3rd Generation and beyond: Emphasis placed on American in Latino-American; worldview reflect American values and beliefs, with a desire to recapture their grandparents values Language is solidly English, though often with an appreciation for Spanish Solidly American in their identity Education attainment is generally high Trust-level reflects that of most Americans
Latino Cultural Values Most experts agree on a core set of Latino cultural values that derive from a collective worldview rather than an individualistic one and that influence many aspects of their lives.
Latino Cultural Values Respeto – establishing clear boundaries in human relationships; central in socialization. Includes respect for authority, for elders; based on hierarchical approach to relationships. Implies compliance and obedience. Personalismo – human relationships are valued over formal rules and regulations, and includes time orientation. The person is more important than the task. Warmth and familiarity are central in developing and maintaining relationships.
Latino Cultural Values (cont.) Familismo – the emphasis on family interaction and structure, dependency; extends beyond nuclear family to expanded family. Family is the primary social unit and source of social support. Suggests collectivism or interdependence. Dignidad – reflected in actions that enhance a sense of pride, regardless of position; belief that every person is has value and worth and should be respected.
An understanding of these key cultural values is essential to establishing a positive, collaborative relationship with first-generation immigrants. For second-generation Latinos, it is important to identify the cultural clash that occurs when the persons family value system seem to be different from those of the dominant culture.