History The area which today is known Estonia has been under the rule of: – Germans, since 12th century; spread of Christianity – Poles, Swedes, Danes, since 16th century; Lutheranism, peasant education and publication of religious books in Estonian since 17th century (‘good old Swedish times’) Academia Gustaviana / Tartu University 1632, literature and music centered in Tallinn First grammars of Estonian language in 17 th century – Russian Empire, beginning of 18th century; The Great Northern War The Baltic Landestaat: Baltic German local government, privileges of 324 noble families / the knighthoods of Estonia, Livonia and Saaremaa
History 18th to 19th century Estonia incorporated into Russian Empire and under German local government, agriculture and industry under German capital Number of Estonians rose from 170 000 in the beginning of 18th century (after GNW and Famine) to 750 000 in 1860 – Agrarian society - 93% of Estoinans lived in rural areas; 95% of Estonians were peasants, most of them serfs; 4% townspeople, 1% other – Germans lived in towns; in towns: Estonians - 60%, Germans - 40% Estonians, 10% - other nations
National awakening 19th century - national awakening and Estonian identity formation – ‘Estonians’ first used in 1857 – The leading force were primarily the emerging intellectuals aspiring to better their social position, the middle layer consisting of civil servants, merchants and artisans and the ethnic Estonian clergy – Oppostion or altenative to German and Russian domiation Birth of civic organisations – Political, ethnic societies not allowed – Temperance, church and educational-artistic societies Schools and teachers as centers of associational life Newspapers
Youth and national awakening Rural youth, participation in societies: – reading societies and libraries, discussion groups, drama, singing, playing instruments, temperance societies, sports groups, home-keeping, farming etc. – Often the societies were started and lead by young people (minors); adult and youth activism was mixed Urban youth, illegal groupings in gymnasiums: – Discussing social, historical and cultural themes, related to (imagined) history of Estonia and becoming an independent nation in Europe; high cultural aims – Support to socialist ideas, employee/worker VS employer/capitalist conflict
Youth and national awakening Church attempted to organize and mobilise youth around Christian values using a range of methods: – Sunday schools, Christian homes and boarding schools, special church services for youth, separate societies for boys and girls. – the attempts were rather unsuccessful because of economic development development of science and secular worldview among people the image of church carried a strong element of violence and oppression so that it did not enjoy high popularity among Estonian people. The role of church diminished as the national awakening movement gained momentum.
Youth activities Civic (and) youth grassroots movements in rural areas activities supported personal development: – particular skills and knowledge (reading, singing, playing an instrument), – developing national identity and respective attitudes, – Networking and contacts, local community development, – promoting temperance and healthier lifestyle. the groups were lead by teachers, more educated and active local people and young people themselves. – Volunteers – Pedagogical training and experience; – not an integrated group with professional self-consciousness; – no professional organisation Participation and target group – involved young people already from age 13 year olds finished schooling and had free time – There were separate societies for men and women, for boys and girls.
Youth instructors Participation and target group – involved young people already from very early age – education then constituted only a 4 year so that 13 year olds already had finished their schooling and had free time to spend it on other things. – There were separate societies for men and women, for boys and girls.
Youth in towns Illegal groups in schools in towns Activities were educating and supported personal development : – the young learn and discuss historical and social situations and developments – ‘let out the steam’ – developing national identity and respective attitudes – Related skills and knowledge Lead by more active fellow pupils – No training, no professional organisation Memberships and target groups – aged 15-17, – mainly boys but not exclusively. – Being formed in secondary schools and gymnasiums, they were reachable only to a small ‘educational elite’. – Membership in those informal groups was limited and entrance to them very tightly controlled. Pupils who were caught, were often expelled from school.
Youth work in church Church congregations Activities – aimed at propagating Christianity and submissiveness to foreign rulers, – social care and assistance Lead by church teachers – Pedagogical training and experience Memberships and target groups – Relatively unpopular, and diminshing popularity
Youth as social actor Active participation in rural societies, taking lead in those societies Formation of literary movement Noor Eesti in 1905 – young writers and poets, programmatic desire to move toward ‘Europe’ Estonian War of Independence (against Soviet Russia Feb 1928-Feb 1920) + Landeswehr battles summer 1919 + White Russian battles October 1919 – significant role played by volunteer troops formed of secondary school boys
Summary of pre-history Framework: national awakening The mobilising idea was strive for independent nationhood, integrated into European cultural space Grassroots non-political societies Youth activism inside this framework – Activities supporting personal growth and formation of national identity – Non-professional but pedagogical and experiental background Youth as significant social actor, leading the way to independence
Youth and youth work 1918-1940 Independent Republic of Estonia was declared on 24 February 1918 Building independent state, formation of public administration system – Legislative framework Legalisation of already existing youth organisations and movements
Legislative framework & developments Year 1922 – Act of Public Gymnasiums pupils (up to 22 years of age) have the right to establish societies and grouping which must be registered by school pedagogical management board. Pupils may participate in all other organisations outside the school but need to get permission from management; the board had the right to ban pupil’s participation in other organisations.
Legislative framework & developments Year 1922 – Ministry issued circular letters specifying non- academic activities in secondary schools. – Ministry stressed the importance of non-curricular pedagogical activities. the need to establish rings which would provide opportunities for non-curricular activities significance of sports and music rings were emphasized since these support development of healthy lifestyle, will-power and patriotism among pupils
Legislative framework & developments Year 1937 – Act of Organizing Youth Camps, Youth Events and Meetings these can be organized only by youth organisations which have been registered at the Ministry of Education (and were in accord with the Act of Organising Youth) or by other organisations, named by the Minister of education – Youth Committee Act A local committee to support youth organisations and youth – local school inspectors, – representative of Ministry of Education, Unit of Youth, – elders or leaders of local chapters of Defence League youth organisations, – Scouts and Guides, – representative of every registered national youth organization
Legislative framework & developments Year 1938 – Acts of Secondary Schools, Gymnasium Act and Vocational School Act which did not mention pupils right to establish rings at school – Youth Act Definition of youth – all individuals below 20 defined goals of youth work: healthy and active citizens who contribute to building of Estonian state and Estonian nation. The Act foresaw that all national youth organisations were subordinated to Chief Commander, who was also Army General Commander. Operational control over youth organisations given to Ministry of Education, Unit of Youth and Free Education
Legislative framework & developments Year 1938 – Youth Act how youth organisations could be established at schools defined establishing and activities of all other youth organisations. Youth organization with members below 18 years had to be registered at the Ministry of Education. the Minister of Education had the right to ban participation in the organization and the Minister of Internal Affairs had the right to dismiss organization which did not follow guidelines from the Ministry of Education. Pupils could partake only in these youth organisations which were allowed by the Minister of Education. Youth organisations which did receive financial support from state, had to get approval to their activity plans, budgets and reports from the Ministry.
Legislative framework & developments Adoption of the acts in 1930s signified change in conception of youth: – Youth issues are not educational issues only (1922 Gymnasium Act) Nevertheless school remained the central structure for youth work – Or civic activism only (youth movements in early independence) – Extracurricular activities given specific developmental role: Upbringing of active citizens, members of Estonian society Youth as a resource for building Estonian state – Method: state controlled and supported youth organisations
Educational reforms Formal education system reform 1934: skills in labor market more valued than general education – Increase in number of vocational schools – Decrease in number of general gymnasiums Non-Formal Learning Society established in 1923 – Umbrella organisation of local education/non-formal learning societies – Central coordinating body of non-formal learning
Scouting There were 3 youth organisations in Estonia – Scouts and Guides (members of World Organisation of the Scout Movement) – Estonian ‘version’ of scouting Noored Sepad (Young Blacksmiths) in Tallinn – Defence League youth corps (became Scouts after joining with original Scouts) The first group of 12-17 year old boys in Pärnu in 1912 New start in 1916-17 in several places in Estonia, – The movement was started in schools, in Tallinn. Guides – girl scouts – movement emerged in 1920-1921 Scouting did not enjoy high popularity in Estonia, its membership figures remained below 4 000. – In 1920 the number of scout-boys in Estonia counted 1 000, – in 1921: 6 000, – 1922-1926 and also in the end of 1920s: between 1300-2000 – In study year 1937-1938 the number of boy scouts was 3 528 and girl scouts 2 189.
Scouting / Young Blacksmiths In 1920 nationally minded scouting movement emerged in Tallinn which accepted only Estonians as their members – Noored Sepad / Young Blacksmiths The main motivations for splitting were – dissatisfaction with ‘cosmopolitanist’ nature of scouting – wish to promote patriotism and love for homeland All members of NS were also active members of youth temperance movement The number of girls around 500 in the end of 1920s The organisation was reformed in 1930, renamed to Noored Kotkad / Young Eagles – Estonian Defence League started its youth organisation
Scouting / Young Blacksmiths Activities in groups of: – Foreign languages – Photography – Maritime training (1 sailing ship and 6 boats) – Theatre and drama – Choir – Sports groups – International contacts, Czech ‘Sokol’ – Partying The organisation was reformed in 1930, renamed to Noored Kotkad / Young Eagles – Estonian Defence League started its youth organisation
Estonian Defence League youth organisations Plans to start affiliated youth organisations announced in 1928 Youth organisations of Estonian Defence League established: – Defence League Boys Corps 1930 – Defence League Girls Corps 1932 Aims of the organisations overlapped to a large degree with Scouts – Scout law, scouting skills – Patriotism and readiness to do military service
Scouts and Defence League youth corps … joined in 1936 into Union of Scouts – The new organisation was accepted into WOSM DLYCs were organisations based on principles of scouting In 1936 close cooperation with Ministry of Education, Unit of Youth and Free Education started – New Youth Act 1936
Activities Games, folk traditions Music groups Maritime, communication, shooting Sports activities and competitions Agriculture and farming, skill development Summer camps, sports Countrywide competition in scouting skills Journals for different age groups – Handbooks for youth instructors
Youth work in scouting Youth instructors grew from amongst members of the organisation – Program/system for training of youth instructors Instructor of young eagles Instructor of eagles Youth master – The institute of youth master Passed the exam of young eagle Been youth leader for at least one year Defended dissertation of youth master The number of youth masters and instructors of eagles ~200 Center of Youth Masters created in 1934, reformed into Union of Youth Masters in 1939 – involved in training of youth instructors also in general management
Youth work in scouting DLYC youth instructors: – Volunteer youth instructors – Paid youth instructors since 1935, part- and fulltime – Defence League instructors – School teachers Professional organisation and identity – Clear internal structure and standards – Purposively trained youth instructors – Experiental and pedagogical background – Quality management/insurance system Internal – Union of Youth Masters External – Ministry of Education – A series of handbooks
Estonian Youth The Youth Act was followed by President’s decree on creation of Estonian Youth in 1938. The organization joined into one: Defence League Boys’ Corps, Defence League Girls’ Corps Scouts, Guides, Young Blacksmiths, Other scouting organization of Baltic or German background Birth of national, state controlled youth organisation – Total membership 55880; 28385 boys and 27495 girls
Secondary School Pupils’ Societies Secondary School Pupils’ Societies 1919-1929 – legalisation and development of formerly illegal pupils’ societies – Activity groups in schools, divided into branches: Humanitarian (themes of social development, nation, religion, ethics, values) Music (choirs, brass groups, even symphony orchestras) Sports Temperance Natural science Drama Arts Chess Libraries – debates and meetings, preparation and discussion of literature reviews, working groups – Youth (Holi)Days in several localities in 1920 and 1921, – alumni societies, – boarding houses for pupils, – summer camps projects were started but not realized.
Secondary School Pupils’ Societies Local rings in schools + national central organisation – Annual national congresses – Several reformations of organisational structure 1921-1922 was the heyday of the movement, societies active in many towns – membership in larger societies reached 700 pupils (in Tallinn), 435 in Viljandi, 400 in Tartu, 300 in Pärnu. – Total membership several thousands
Secondary School Pupils’ Societies After 1922 started to loose momentum – Ministry of Education adopted ‘normal constitutions’ for youth societies which limited YO’s autonomy Conflict with the ministry Many local clubs turned into hobby rings and lost membership in SSPS Public Gymnasium Act adopted 1922 stipulated that separate written permission from school needed to be obtained to participate in external youth organisations – Conflict between some local chapters Establishing of independent Pupil’s Sports Society 1923 – Establishing Youth Temperance Society in 1923 YTS took over notable part of SSPS’s activities Closure of the organisation in 1929
Hobby rings in schools In 1922 the Ministry issued circular letters emphasizing the importance of non-curricular pedagogical activities in shaping young personality. – The need to establish various clubs and rings which would provide opportunities for non-curricular activities for pupils was stressed. – Significance of sports and music rings were emphasized since these support development of healthy lifestyle, will-power and patriotism among pupils. Participation in rings and clubs organized in schools was strongly recommended by school management + schoolmaster could ban pupils’ participation in organisations outside school (1922 Act). – Pupils participation in any legal youth club or organization was made conditional on their academic success and conduct. The measures were to fighting drinking and partying among youth
Hobby rings in schools 1923-19241924-1925 Average membership Total membership boys+girls Average membership Total membership Sports572876+623573358 Temperance571444+5251601173 Literature 1963+1143 3448 (literature & science) Science45118041 Study groups66806+661832733 Arts44959461974 Chess2226528204 Pupils cooperative groups76786+649701243 Scouting 349+126 Other 1303+715 768
Hobby rings in schools LevelYearRingsParticipants Secondary school1923-1924215 11 951 (65% of all pupils) Elementary school (grades 1-6)1923-192425111 712 (10%) Total1923-1924466 Total1924-192551227 669 1925-1926663
Hobby rings in schools 1937-1938 majority of schools had operating youth organisations – in towns 77,7% of schools had operating youth organisations and 82,6% of schools had pupils who were members of some youth organisation 52,7% of pupils participated – In rural schools, 85% and 87,9% 49,7% of pupils participated – most schools were still outside towns in towns were 224 schools (elementary, vocational, secondary and gymnasiums) in rural areas 1236 (85%) schools. 71 different types of hobby activities and hobby rings – Total number of hobby rings was 1163 (512 in 1924-1925) – total number of participants was 48 127 (27 668 in 1924-1925; which was ~20% of pupils) The number inter-school student societies was 7, and 5 of them were in Tallinn. – The largest consisted of 28 schools and 1523 members, – the smallest from 5 schools and 37 members.
Hobby rings in schools Hobby rings in schools were lead by school teachers mostly. – In school-based activities were involved 2986 teachers and outside school based activities 800 teachers. – In addition to teachers, people outside school personnel were involved, number of additional staff 420 (10% of all youth workers) composition of the group varied from Defence League instructors to school headmaster’s spouses and older pupils Pedagogical education, and experienced as teachers of a particular subject.
Countrywide Union of Estonian Youth Societies In 1919, Countrywide Union of Estonian Youth Societies was established. apolitical and non-religious youth movement, which aimed at providing young people with leisure time spending opportunities Before 1923, the CUEYS was mainly a movement of school pupils and teachers. In 1923 the Gymnasium Act (1922) prohibited participation in organisations outside school. – CUEYS moves from town to rural areas where there were relatively many young people aged 13-15 who had already finished their education and were looking for appropriate leisure time spending opportunities.
Countrywide Union of Estonian Youth Societies It focused on activities which had potential for supporting personal and cultural development of a young person: – sports, – music, – literature, – drama, – Esperanto, – chess, – libraries and reading societies, – various training courses, – temperance. It valued patriotism, love of fatherland and general human values.
Countrywide Union of Estonian Youth Societies The CUEYS was a network / an umbrella organization of local clubs which operated as actual sites of activities. – 1919 – 7 clubs – 1923 – 37 – 1924 – 61 – 1927 – 132 average size in 1926 55-60 people, but varied from 20 to 500. A lot of variation across local clubs. Total number of involved young people several thousands, close to 10 000 – In the end of 1937 it had 5832 participants, around 10% of organised youth Central organization: a council of representatives of local clubs + executive management board. Clubs had thematic branches Clubs had subunits with concrete function that were necessary for functioning of the chapter
Countrywide Union of Estonian Youth Societies Youth work professionalism – participation in clubs most probably was an developmental experience for the participants. Concrete skills, new contacts, networking Community development acquired new knowledge. – activities and organisation at different levels was lead by young people themselves, School teachers, other active adults.
Countrywide Union of Rural Youth Established in early 1930s – Umbrella organisation of rural co-operatives Activities: – Training courses, agricultural and farming skills – Meetings – Study trips – Agricultural contests – Summer days
Countrywide Union of Rural Youth Target group – mainly rural youth below 18 years of age – 1935: 99 local chapters with 3226 registered members – 1937: 250 and 7785 – 1939: 446 and 13500 Quick increase in membership numbers – Employed youth instructors
Youth Temperance Society established in 1923 Activities: – meetings, – training courses, – essay competitions, – other similar activities Partly umbrella organization for various organisations from other movements – scouting – ECUYS – had its own chapters elementary and secondary schools. In 1925 had 11 731 members in elementary and secondary schools In 1932 had 6500 members in ~100 local chapters
Estonian Youth Red Cross Established in 1923 Focus on – Health – Cross-cultural integration and mutual respect 1932 had ~11000 members
Church A number of congregations carried out youth targeted activities. – social care strand Prevent problems Assist those in trouble – Religious strand Community for leading religious (Christian) life upbringing of conservative personalities who respect authority and follow rules Youth membership several hundreds, – age of participants could be well over 30 years, which at that times was considered to be middle-age
Church YMCA established in 1920 – 1935: 20 local chapters with ~3000 participants YWCA established in 1921 – 1935: 15 local chapters with ~1500 participants Activities: – Religious themes and practices – Training courses – Choirs, music, drama – Sports – Camps and hiking tours
Sports Sporting as (most) popular activity in many youth organisations Competitive youth sports – Central Union of Sports established early 1930s – in Tallinn Tallinn Schools Sportsclubs Union Both organized competitive sports events and prepared youth for competitions. CUS organised well over 100 contests and training courses in 1937, ~15000 young people partook CUS trained youth sports instructors – 459 people received youth sports instructor qualification in 1937 Amongst them only 171 were school teachers with prior pedagogical education
Political organisations Communist youth – illegal movement that was the strongest organisation – promoted Marxist-Leninist ideology, workers vs capitalists Social-democratic youth. Few hundred members. Young Socialist Workers Socialist Youth Political youth organisations were actually youth chapters of political parties, even if legally independent. – sites for political socialization into particular ideology and corresponding political action. Members mainly urban youth aged 14-25 – some participants 8 or 30 year olds. – Different age groups were approached differently; people 25+ were recruited into political party.
Estonian Union of Communist Youth In late 1920, All-Estonian Union of Young Proletarians was established and registered. AEUYP was banned in April 1921, when it had already 1000+ members. The forced closure was followed by birth of illegal Estonian Union of Communist Youth, with support and help from illegal Estonian Communist Party. – The EUCY had chapters in a number of places all over Estonia. Leaders of the illegal youth organization were arrested again in 1931. – The EUCY was illegal from 1921 to 1940. The EUCY was predecessor of Estonian Communist Party Youth League in Soviet era The union united and organized active youth who became leading figures in Communist Party in Soviet era.
Summary From youth movements to state controlled youth organisations – Increasing state control over youth organisations Parting of extracurricular activities from formal education – School still of central importance Youth participation increased in youth work Professionalisation of youth work since 1930s; youth workers as a professional group
Soviet Socialist Republic of Estonia Estonia was occupied by Soviet Army in 1940 and was forced to join Soviet Union. – During WWII, it was also occupied by German troops from 1941 to 1944. Occupational powers aimed at establishing possibly tight control and centralization in all areas of society. So too in the area of youth. – Earlier multitude and variety of youth organisations was replaced with several central organisations
Communist Youth League The predecessor of Komsomol was the Russian Communist League of Youth founded in 1918 as a reserve of the Communist Party. From 1926 onwards All-Union Leninist Communist League of Youth. – Organisation for young people between the ages of 14 and 28. – The main task was to spread communist ideas and Party propaganda among young people. – Joining the organisation was voluntary, although not joining could become an obstacle in acquiring education (getting into secondary school and university), as well as in finding a job in one’s professional field.
Estonian Leninist Communist League of Youth …was founded as a territorial organisation of the All-Union League in 1940 – Its predecessor was illegal All-Estonian Union of Young Proletarians The ELCLY was a political organization, working to support Communist Party – socialize youth into Soviet ideology
Estonian Leninist Communist League of Youth ELCLY was organisation for 3 age groups: – October Kids, age 6-10 Activities organised in ‘stars’: 5 pupils + instructor – Pioneers, age 10-15 One pioneer detachment consisted of children of one school – the detachment was divided into groups (usually the pioneers of one class) » and the group into smaller units 1960 – 63607 pioneers 1980 - ~80000 pioneers – Komsomol, age 15-28
ELCLY members’ background YearMembersAge % members 1982 Status breakdown Memberships in groups 1922 286 14 yrs5% Pupils, students 46% Among working youth 57% 1946 11 788 15-17 yrs26% Working youth 54% Among general secondary school pupils 77% 1955 61 373 18-22 yrs34% Among vocational higher education pupils 86% 1966 107 819 23-25 yrs21% Among university students 92% 1974 128 041 26-28 yrs13% 1982 163 861 11469 organisational units 28+ yrs1% CL targeted more educated youth 1989 165 786
October Kids and Pioneers Activities of pioneer organisations at schools: – Meetings, themes chosen to assure ideological socialisation – Various other events, attractive to youth Calendar-events Theme-meetings Hiking Trips and traveling, excursions Games etc
Pioneer instructors Activities carried out by – Pioneer leaders/instructors - leads of pioneers in one class or a group of pioneers – senior pioneer leaders/instructors Senior pioneer leaders – head of all pioneers in one school. – His or her responsibility was to organise activities for pioneers of that school. – Assuring ideological socialisation of pioneers was part of that job. – In 1982, altogether 497 senior pioneer leaders were working
Professional background of senior pioneer instructors Teachers and active pupils were selected to take the post of senior pioneer leader. – The ratio between the two groups was roughly 50:50, perhaps more toward dominance of pupils. – Many of them had not obtained higher education: in 1982, 24% had higher education and 12% at least 3 years of studies secondary-vocational education 24% of SPLs, secondary education 23% and still in education were 16%. Age – equal distribution between three age groups: – 18-21 year olds, – 22-28 year olds, – 28+ year olds. Experience – from no experience to up to 2 years of experience – 52%; – From no experince to 4 years of experience - 67%. CP affiliation – 26% were full members of Communist party and 74% members of ELCLY
Training of senior pioneer instructors Pedagogical training, teachers Ideological training In 1959, the first Estonian pioneer leaders’ and pioneer activists training courses / summer camp was held. In 1969, all-Union Communist Youth League University was opened in Moscow Senior pioneer leaders and pioneers leaders used methodical guidance materials – handbooks. – The books were published and printed in early 1970s.
Pioneer camps Pioneer camps were organized for youth aged 7-15 during their summer vacation, recreational purposes In Estonia – in 1946 13 permanent pioneer camps, 6000 children – in 1972 35 permanent pioneer camps, – end of Soviet period 46 pioneer camps Owned and operated by local governments, state enterprises, trade unions all-Union elite pioneer camp Artek in Crimea, Black Sea – Places to the pioneer camps were distributed through parents’ workplaces’ trade unions
ELCLY and propaganda through education Lecturing and folk universities In 1981, altogether 536 lecturers were working. They gave – 11 870 lectures to 451 061 people on 8 broad theme- areas. 4 of the areas were directly linked to youth: History of Pioneer Organisation, Youth and Ideological Struggle/Fight, international youth movements, youth and law. – Around 1/3 of audience was below 30 years old – In the end of 1970, pedagogical study groups in Komsomol started and in 1982 were 290 such groups with 3000+ participants were operational.
Extracurricular education Youth ABC program in folk universities – The program introduced to youth with different professions, vocations – Targeted to high school last grade pupils In 1980 Estonian Pupils’ Academic/Research Society was established. – In 1982 it had 23 branches with 164 active pupils. Its head was correspondent member of the academy. Its management board included pupils from secondary schools Students partook in research competitions on the themes of history of communist party, international youth movement and social science in general – In 1976 the number of papers was 16836 – in 1980 it was 14206
ELCLY and youth events Young people participated in national, all-Union and international youth forums, student conferences and other events. – Young elite, formation of political ‘establishment’ Different professional and sectoral conferences were organized – 1 st all-Union meeting of young writers in 1947, – all-Union meeting of rural Communist Youth League leaders, – Congress of Estonian Rural Youth 1948. events on republican, Soviet Union and international level started immediately after end of the WWII. Over the period of 1945-1985 the total of 133 youth events took place: congresses of ELCLY, scientific conferences, summer days, etc: – 63 republican, – 37 all-union or regional, – 33 international.
ELCLY and youth events Regional all-Baltic student song and folk dance festival Gaudeamus was held in years 1956, 1958, 1967, 1968, 1971, 1974, 1978, 1981 and 1984. Estonian youth song and folk dance festival was held in 1962, 1967 1972, 1977 and in 1982. Pupils drama festival was held in 1963, Estonian Youth Festivals were held in 1957 and in 1959. Youth summer days was an entertainment event organized for young people who had turned 18 year old and entered legal adulthood. Most of participants were pupils at secondary schools (ELKNÜ XIX: 71). 1978 – 6 501, 1979 – 6 267, 1980 – 6 529, 1981 – 6 931 In 1945, celebration of International Youth Day on 10 th of November started. In 1958, celebration of Soviet Youth Day on 29 th of June started.
Tourism and international contacts ELCLY and Intourist organized trips to – other regions in the Soviet Union – Abroad – also brought foreigners to Estonia. Trips to abroad – remuneration for good work and participation in socialist work competitions – countries of Soviet Bloc, mainly East Germany and Hungary. 1978-1981 visited Soviet youth a total of 36 countries. – tourism and recreation, – vocational and professional exchanges, – educational seminars. – In 1981 1055 young people travelled to international youth centers or youth camps. – 43 000 members of CPYL participated in ‘Soviet Union – my homeland’ Visits to other soviet socialist republics
Pioneer Centers / Houses Pioneer Centers/Houses started to appear in 1946 (1941): Tallinn, Viljandi. – In 1947, similar institutions started in Tartu and Rakvere. Between 1949 and 1959 11 pioneer centers/houses were established Tallinn Pioneer Palace, now operating under name Hobby Center Kullo, had in its heyday – more than 5 000 participants aged 10-14 years – in more than 200 hobby groups – 50 hobby activity fields – employed more than 100 youth pedagogues and instructors Pioneer houses / centers in all main towns
Hobby rings in schools A range of hobby rings worked in schools – Instructors were school teachers, professionals, engineers, scientists, … 1980-81 Total number of pupils in schools of general education182 183 IV-XI grade pupils (11-18 year olds)125 500 Technical rings14 159 (12%) Agricultural rings11 176 (9%) Arts and creative rings61 929 (49%)
Sports Functions of sports: – Upbringing of strong and healthy generation – Demonstration of the economic, social and educational welfare world-widely – Keep young generation involved to prevent the forming of the dissident state of mind – as the means of making the new generation capable to sustain the nation. Through the achievements in sport, the attempt to demonstrate what a little nation can gain was made and with this make the national ideas more effective.
Children’s Schools of Sports; sports in schools In 1946, 7 CSS-s were operational. In 1960, around 20 CSS were operational In 1981 there were 61 schools of sports in Estonia with more than 30 000 pupils. – located in nearly all towns of Estonia. Tallinn Boarding School of Sports with its branch in Otepää was operating. – In schools of general education classes specialising in sports were operating. In 1988, there was 88 such classes with 1 650 pupils
Paramilitary games PÕUAVÄLK (Lightning) was a paramilitary patriotic game – targeted to older age groups. – From 1967 to 1979 KOTKAPOEG (Eaglet) was a paramilitary patriotic game – targeted to younger age groups – From 1978-1981, teams from 23 towns, Tallinn city districts and counties partook in national finals Ole Valmis Tööks ja Kaitseks (Ready to work and military service) was a set of standards in sports
Children’s art schools, music schools Music schools – Singing – Playing an instrument – History and theory of music In 1940, before the start of Soviet occupation, 3 schools of music and one higher school of music were operating. In 1945, around 5 elementary schools of music were working. In 1949, elementary schools of music were started in 3 more towns. In 1960, altogether 20 children’s music schools were working. In 1988 there were 47 children’s music schools, Tallinn Secondary Music School (1961), Tallinn Music School, Tartu Music School. Art Schools – Drawing and painting – Sculpting – History and theory of art In 1950 Tartu Art School, in 1957, Children’s Art School was opened in Tartu Children’s Art Schools in all bigger centers, settlements
Work education In the mid-1950s the Young Communist League despatched young people from all over the Soviet Union to the virgin lands of Kazakhstan and to the special Young Communist League construction work Three organisations for work education in Estonia – different age and educational background groups
Estonian Pupils’ Work Brigades The tradition of building brigades for secondary school students of 15-18 years of age began in 1967 when the first 7 brigades started. – The activity period of EPBW lasted 6 weeks. work and leisure – Work mainly was agricultural and forestry elementary jobs. – In the end of every working also final summer days were organized. Number of participants: – 1980: 15 370 pupils + 1 000 commanders – 1985: 27 000 Extremely popular among young people – Spend great time, earn money, party – Not much ideological socialisation
Work and Vacation Camps WVC was a younger brother of EPWB which started in 1970s. It was meant for providing recreational opportunities and working environment for elementary school children, between 12 and 15 years of age.
Estonian Student Building Brigades Estonian Student Building Brigades started 1964 – A group of 125 students travelled to the Kotorkul district in Kazakhstan to work on construction. – From 1966 the brigades mainly worked in Estonia, where they were employed in construction work in rural areas. – The heyday of the student brigades were the 1970s, when about two thousand students, or 10% of all Estonian students, worked there each year. – Until the end of the brigades in 1993, altogether over 30,000 students had taken part.
Estonian Student Building Brigades ESBBwas a springboard to successful career either along professional track and party track ESBB participants were very successful after restoration of independence. – the network of EÜE acquiantances was crucial for success in business, party and/or public administration career.
Summary Centralised control over youth work environments and opprtunities Youth work used for controlling youth, socialisation into Soviet ideology – Party elite training Wide variety of opportunities – Different activities, from recreational to professional skill development – Different activities for different age groups Youth worker (ideological) training – professional youth work in some areas
Re-independent Estonia On 20 August 1991 the Estonian Supreme Soviet proclaimed Estonian independence, thus restoring the Republic of Estonia The centralized youth work system established under regime of Soviets ceased to exist, though not entirely and not momentarily – Decentralisation of youth work, municipalities – Multitude of actors
2 phases ‘Demolition’ phase of restructuring until mid-1990s Building the new system: late 1990 to present – Youth Work Act adopted in 1999 Developing of the act started in 1996 – YWA and Local Government Act (2004): youth work is the responsibility of municipalities – The 1st Youth Work Forum in 1999 Youth work development plan 2001-2004 – Estonian Youth Work Center established 1999 Currently expertise and resource center in youth work and youth (work) policy, coordination and implementation of youth related policy measures
Youth projects and open youth work Youth in Action national agency established in 1997 – Currently holds expertise in youth worker training Practical Youth work youth (work) policy Support to youth projects from municipalities First Open Youth Centers established 1999 – Currently ~250 centers
Youth participation in schools Youth participation in educational institutions – Universities Act (1995), – New Basic Schools and Upper Secondary Schools Act (2010), – Vocational Educational Institutions Act (1998), – Institutions of Professional Higher Education Act (1998) – Private Schools Act (1998) Pupils and students have the right form a student representative board and the right participate, via elected representatives, in school management Currently Estonian Student Council Union and Federation of Estonian Student Unions active in youth field
Youth organisations and youth participation Youth organisations and National Youth Council – NYC umbrella organisation to more than 50 youth organisations Political to professional/educational organisations ~7% of youth participates NYC active in youth field Municipal youth councils – In 45 municipalities County youth councils – In all 15 counties
Hobby education and hobby activities … in hobby schools and hobby rings – Hobby education in hobby schools more structured program leading to certificate – Hobby rings in schools, youth centers, hobby schools 53660 young people in hobby schools, hobby education programs – Most popular: 1. sports 2. music and arts ~70% involved in hobby activities Continuation of music, art, sports schools from Soviet period, in some cases from pre-war period
Recreation, work, volunteering Youth camps operational since early 1990s – ~30000 children every year Pupils’ Work Brigades – Start after 2004
Youth counseling Counseling service offered in counseling centers located in all counties and on thematic webpages – Education and labor market choices – Recreation, leisure, hobbies – Peers, relationships – Health, sexual health Counseling follows international counseling standards Juvenile committees for minors
Youth workers’ professinalism Youth workers trained in three institutions of higher education: – Narva College of Tartu University – Viljandi Cultural Academy of Tartu University – Tallinn Pedagogical Seminar – Youth worker trainings Youth worker standards adopted in 2008 Estonian Youth Workers’ Society Estonian Hobby Education Instructors’ Society Hobby Center Leaders’ Society
Concluding remarks 3 changes of political regime in 100 years – 1918-1940: nation/state-building Growth from grassroots youth movements to youth work in state controlled youth organisations, with alternatives – 1944-1991: Soviet Socialist Republic of Estonia Centralised, state controlled (professional) youth work richness used for ideological socialisation purposes, controlling youth – 1991 onwards: re-independence Support to personal development of each young person, varied environments; state as facilitator