Presentation on theme: "EUROPEAN UNIONS COUNTRIES. ITALY: EUROPES BOOT San Marino Vatican City It is in the South of Europe and it borders the Mediterranean Sea. It borders France."— Presentation transcript:
EUROPEAN UNIONS COUNTRIES
ITALY: EUROPES BOOT San Marino Vatican City It is in the South of Europe and it borders the Mediterranean Sea. It borders France in the North-West, Switzerland and Austria in the North and Slovenia in the North- East. Its west coast is wet by Tyrrhenian Sea, while the east one is wet by Adriatic Sea, in South- East Italy is wet by Ionian. Two litttle indipendent states are also included: Vatican City and San Marino.
Italian territory is subdivided in: continental Italy peninsular Italy insular Italy
The territory is mainly made by mountains and hills. The widest plain is the Padan Plain. MountainPlain Hill
Friuli Venezia Giulia Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol Sicily Sardinia Aosta Valley From an administrative point of view Italy is subdivided into 21 REGIONS 5 of them have a special statute: Friuli Venezia Giulia; Aosta Valley ; Sicily; Sardinia; Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Agricolture, silviculture, fishing Manufacturing sector Mineral sector Building and public works Services Energy and water PRODUCTIVE SECTORS IN ITALY.
The religion that prevals in Italy is Catholicism. However there are minorities of: Protestantism Hebraism Islam Buddhism Hinduism In Italy there are inhabitants.
Main cities: ROME: THE CAPITAL
VENICEMILAN FLORENCE NAPLES OTHER IMPORTANT CITIES:
FROM MONARCHY TO REPUBLIC 1848 Albertino Statute The Resistance: The partisans 1946 The Constitution The Republic The dictatorship: The fascism The war
The first shape of the italian Constitution dates back 4th March 1848 and it is theAlbertino Statute, issued by the king Carlo Alberto of Savoy
ALBERTINO STATUTE On 17th March 1861 the king Vittorio Emanuele of Savoy king of Italy thanks to God and nations will extends the Albertino Statute to the territories of the United Italy.
The Albertino Statute admits the separation of powers: legislative, executive, judicial. THE KING EXECUTIVE POWER LEGISLATIVE POWER JUDICAL POWER APPOINTS MINISTERS SENATE OF THE KINGDOM CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES MAGISTRATES ELECTS PEOPLE (only rich and male people can vote)
The way to the suffrage in Italy begins when the Nation was not a unitary state. 1872: threshold of electoral maturity from 25 to 21. Can vote citizens that can read and write. 1848: vote to men oven 25 who could read and write and payed at least 40 lires of taxes.
1882: the right to vote to aged literate men is recognized. 1912: all 21 years men who can read and write can vote; illiterate people can vote from 30 if they did the military service. 1919: all 21 years male citizens can vote. Minors who have done the military service can vote as well. The electorate rises to 11 millions.
From 1922 to 1943: FASCIST DICTATORSHIP Suppresses personal freedom and leads the country to World War II.
Abolition of every freedom (of print, of demonstration, …) Abolition of municipal and provincial elections. Foundation of Great Council of Fascism (Supreme Unit) Imposition of Fascist Party like the only one. In 1926 the fascistissime laws come into force. Establishment of capital punishment. Foundation of secret police (OVRA).
World War II From 1939 to 1945
In 1942 Partisans put on their arms: the Italian Resistence was born and it opposes to the Nazi-fascists
4th MAY 1945: THE END OF THE WAR FOR ITALY.
THE PARTISANS CELEBRATE WITH THE ALLIES THE LIBERATION FROM NAZI- FASCISM.
THE WAR IS OVER AND THE POWER PASSES INTO THE HANDS OF NEW PARTIES.
Universal suffrage for men and women, who are 18 years old. 1946
may 1946 local elections: the first opportunity to vote for Italian women.
MonarchyRepubblic The Italians are again called to vote for the institutional Referendum between the Monarchy and the Republic, and for the election of the Constituent Assembly. 2nd JUNE 1946
The Republic wins VOTE TO WOMEN
CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY AT WORK
THE CONSTITUTION IS SIGNED AND RATIFIED
1st JANUARY 1948: ITALIAN CONSTITUTION BECOMES EFFECTIVE...
RIGID: it may be changed only unanimously and trough special procedures. LONG: it includes both the rules of civil life and of law. VOTED : it was chosen by the representatives of the people.
CITIZENS PARLIAMENT THE PRESIDENT OF REPUBLIC PARLIAMENT LEGISLATIVE POWER GOVERNMENT EXECUTIVE POWER COURT JUDICIAL POWER In a common session with the regional representatives they elect IS THE CHAIRMAN OF THE MAGISTRATES GOVERNING COUNCIL APPOINTS THE PRIME MINISTER CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES Senate of Republic
The Italian Republic is representative and parlamentary.
The Representative Democracy is a form of government in which citizens appoint their representatives in parliament.
The right to vote is the utmost expression of the popolar sovereignty. The soverreignty belongs to the people and it is exerced in the forms and the limits provided by the Constitution (art 1 Const.). The exercise of the sovereignty occurs in two ways:
The iniziative of popular law (art. 71 Const.). The right of popular petition (art. 50 Const.). 1. DIRECT DEMOCRACY that is implementated with:
2. The referendum : citizens express their own opinion with an abrupt alternative (yes or no) about a precise question. There are different types of referendum: –Abrogative (art.75 Const.) –Constitutional (art. 138 Const.) –Territorial (art. 132 Const.) –Consultative
2. REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY (elections). The vote (art. 48 Const.) is: –personal and equal –free –secret –a civic duty
WHO HAS THE RIGTH TO VOTE? a)Aged citizens can elect the Chamber of Deputies b) Citizens over 25 can elect the Senate Electors are all citizens, men and women, when are aged (Art. 48 Const.) In particular:
WHO HAS NOT THE RIGHT TO VOTE? a)Those who are declared bankrupt b) People considered dangerous for the security c) Submitts to prisons measures d) Interdicted from public charges
WHO CAN BE ELECTED? a)All 25- years voters are eligible to the Chamber of Deputies. b) All 40-years voters are eligible to the Senate.
The electoral law is proportional and has the following characteristics : Proportional principle; Possibility of coalition; Premium of national majority for the Chamber of Deputies (340 seats, 55%) and regional for the Senate. Dams: coalitions 10%, allied parties 2%, non allied 4%; Lock of preference. HOW IS ANYONE ELECTED? The electoral system in force (2006)
What is a Parliamentary Republic? In the political system, said parliamentary Republic, the Parliament is the only institution to hold the representation of popular will. Parliament is a complex, collective, constitutional body, that operates several legislative (art.72) and political control functions (relationship of trust art. 94);
Parliament The system outlined in the Constitution (artt. 70 and 94) provides: A perfect two roomed: the two Chambers are in a position of absolute equality in terms of functions and powers. Italian Parliament is divided into: - Chamber of Deputies - Senate of Republic and is elected every five years by citizens.
The Chamber of Deputies is composed of 630 members, all chosen by universal suffrage. The seat of the Chamber is Montecitorio Palace.
The Senate of the Republic is composed of 315 members some of them are life senators and some others for law in a variable number. The seat of the Senate is Madama Palace.
The legislative power in Italy is up to Parliament that has the power to emanate the laws. Every law has to be approved in the same text by the two Chambers.
Executive power is up to the Government that has the power to apply laws. The Government casts 5 years and has the tasks : To make law and order be respected; To hold the foreign policy of the State; To direct the military forces; To direct the public services and the public administration.
Italian Government is composed of the President of the Council and of the Ministers that together compose the Council of Ministers. The official residence of the Government is Chigi Palace in Colonna Square in Rome. The residence for official occasions is instead Villa Pamphili in Rome.
The judicial power is a constitutional organ that can solve a civil, penal and administrative controversy, by applyng the law; this power belongs to the Magistracy. The Magistracy constitutes an autonomous and indipendent organ from any other power and it is a Constitutional Organ.
In Italy the organ of selfgovernment of Magistracy is the Superior Council of Magistracy, presided by the President of the Republic. 1. The Superior Court of Cassation is the judge of lost application in Italy. The residence of Court of Cassation is the Justice Palace, called Palazzaccio in Rome. THE MAGISTRACY IS DIVIDED INTO THREE DEGREES: 2. The Court of appeal is a college of second degree that judges on sentences of ordinary court. It resides in the chief town of each district. 3. The Court of Assize is a college that judges on penal matters and it is composed of eight judges and presided by a councilor magistrate of court of appeal. The Court of Assize has competence to judge the worse crimes.
The President of the Italian Repubblic is the head of the state and rappresents the national unity. The Constitution explains all tasks and powers of the President of the Republic, that in detail are:
In relationship with external representation (to accredit and to receive diplomatic functionaries, to ratify international treaties, etc.); In relationship with the exercise of the parliamentary functions ( to designate up to five life senators, etc.); In relationship with legislative functions (to promulgate the laws approved in the parliament, to issue decrees, legislative decrees and rulers, ecc.);
In relationship with the exercise of the sovereignty of the people (to hold a referendum, etc.); In relationship with the executive function and the governments policy (to designate the President of the Council of ministers and ministers, to be the chairman of the Supreme Council of Defense, etc.); In relationship with the exercise of the jurisdiction (to be the chairman of C.S.M., to designate three judges of Constitutional Court, to grant the grace, etc.);