2ITALY: EUROPE’S “BOOT” It is in the South of Europe and it borders the Mediterranean Sea. It borders France in the North-West, Switzerland and Austria in the North and Slovenia in the North-East. Its west coast is wet by Tyrrhenian Sea, while the east one is wet by Adriatic Sea, in South-East Italy is wet by Ionian. Two litttle indipendent states are also included: Vatican City and San Marino.San MarinoVatican City
3Italian territory is subdivided in: continental Italypeninsular Italyinsular Italy
4The territory is mainly made by mountains and hills The territory is mainly made by mountains and hills. The widest plain is the Padan Plain.MountainPlainHill
5Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol Friuli Venezia GiuliaAosta ValleyFrom an administrative point of view Italy is subdivided into21 REGIONS5 of them have a “special statute”:Friuli Venezia Giulia;Aosta Valley ;Sicily;Sardinia;Trentino-Alto Adige/SüdtirolSardiniaSicily
6PRODUCTIVE SECTORS IN ITALY. Agricolture, silviculture, fishing Manufacturing sectorMineral sector Building and public worksServices Energy and water
7In Italy there are 60.157.214 inhabitants. The religion that prevals in Italy is Catholicism.However there are minorities of:ProtestantismHebraismIslamBuddhismHinduism
11The first shape of the italian Constitution dates back 4th March 1848 and it is the “Albertino Statute”, issued by the king Carlo Alberto of Savoy
12ALBERTINO STATUTEOn 17th March 1861 the king Vittorio Emanuele of Savoy “king of Italy thanks to God and nation’s will” extends the “Albertino Statute” to the territories of the United Italy.
13EXECUTIVE POWER LEGISLATIVE POWER JUDICAL POWER The “Albertino Statute” admits the separation of powers: legislative, executive, judicial.THE KINGEXECUTIVE POWER LEGISLATIVE POWER JUDICAL POWERAPPOINTSAPPOINTSAPPOINTSSENATE OF THE KINGDOMCHAMBER OF DEPUTIESMINISTERSMAGISTRATESELECTSPEOPLE(only rich and male people can vote)
14The way to the suffrage in Italy begins when the Nation was not a unitary state. 1848: vote to men oven 25 who could read and write and payed at least 40 lires of taxes.1872: threshold of electoral maturity from 25 to 21.Can vote citizens that can read and write.
151882: the right to vote to aged literate men is recognized. 1912: all 21 years men who can read and write can vote; illiterate people can vote from 30 if they did the military service.1919: all 21 years male citizens can vote. Minors who have done the military service can vote as well.The electorate rises to 11 millions.
16From 1922 to 1943: FASCIST DICTATORSHIP Suppresses personal freedom and leads the country to World War II.
17In 1926 the “fascistissime” laws come into force. Abolition of every freedom (of print, of demonstration, …)Abolition of municipal and provincial elections.Foundation of Great Council of Fascism (Supreme Unit)Imposition of Fascist Party like the only one.Establishment of capital punishment.Foundation of secret police (OVRA).
301st JANUARY 1948:ITALIAN CONSTITUTIONBECOMES EFFECTIVE...
31The Italian Constitution is: RIGID: it may be changed only unanimously and trough special procedures.LONG: it includes both the rules of civil life and of law.VOTED : it was chosen by the representatives of the people.
32THE PRESIDENT OF REPUBLIC CITIZENSPARLIAMENTLEGISLATIVE POWERPARLIAMENTCHAMBER OF DEPUTIESSenate of RepublicGOVERNMENTEXECUTIVE POWERIn a common session with the regional representatives they electAPPOINTS THE PRIME MINISTERCOURTJUDICIAL POWERTHE PRESIDENT OF REPUBLICIS THE CHAIRMAN OF THE “MAGISTRATES GOVERNING COUNCIL”
33The Italian Republic is representative and parlamentary.
34The Representative Democracy is a form of government in which citizens appoint their representatives in parliament.
35The right to vote is the utmost expression of the popolar sovereignty. The soverreignty belongs to the people and it is exerced in the forms and the limits provided by the Constitution (art 1 Const.).The right to vote is the utmost expressionof the popolar sovereignty.The exercise of the sovereignty occurs in two ways:
36that is implementated with: DIRECT DEMOCRACYthat is implementated with:The iniziative of popular law (art. 71 Const.).The right of popular petition (art. 50 Const.).
372. The referendum: citizens express their own opinion with an abrupt alternative (yes or no) about a precise question.There are different types of referendum:Abrogative (art.75 Const.)Constitutional (art. 138 Const.)Territorial (art. 132 Const.)Consultative
382. REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY (elections). The vote (art. 48 Const.) is:personal and equalfreesecreta civic duty
39WHO HAS THE RIGTH TO VOTE? “Electors are all citizens, men and women,when are aged” (Art. 48 Const.)In particular:Aged citizens can elect the Chamber of Deputiesb) Citizens over 25 can elect the Senate
40WHO HAS NOT THE RIGHT TO VOTE? Those who are declared bankruptb) People considered dangerous for the securityc) Submitts to prisons measuresd) Interdicted from public charges
41WHO CAN BE ELECTED?All 25- years voters are eligible to the Chamber of Deputies.b) All 40-years voters are eligible to the Senate.
42The electoral system in force (2006) HOW IS ANYONE ELECTED?The electoral system in force (2006)The electoral law is proportional and has the following characteristics :Proportional principle;Possibility of coalition;Premium of national majority for the Chamber of Deputies (340 seats, 55%) and regional for the Senate.Dams: coalitions 10%, allied parties 2%, non allied 4%;Lock of preference.
43What is a Parliamentary Republic What is a Parliamentary Republic? In the political system, said parliamentary Republic, the Parliament is the only institution to hold the representation of popular will.Parliament is a complex, collective, constitutional body, that operates several legislative (art.72) and political control functions (relationship of trust art. 94);
44ParliamentThe system outlined in the Constitution (artt. 70 and 94) provides:A perfect two roomed: the two Chambers are in a position of absolute equality in terms of functions and powers.Italian Parliament is divided into: - Chamber of Deputies - Senate of Republicand is elected every five years by citizens.
45The Chamber of Deputies is composed of 630 members, all chosen by universal suffrage. The seat of the Chamber is Montecitorio Palace.
46The Senate of the Republic is composed of 315 members some of them are life senators and some others for law in a variable number. The seat of the Senate is Madama Palace.
47The legislative power in Italy is up to Parliament that has the power to emanate the laws. Every law has to be approved in the same text by the two Chambers.
48Executive power is up to the Government that has the power to apply laws. The Government casts 5 years and has the tasks:To make law and order be respected;To hold the foreign policy of the State;To direct the military forces;To direct the public services and the public administration.
49Italian Government is composed of the President of the Council and of the Ministers that together compose the Council of Ministers.The official residence of the Government is Chigi Palace in Colonna Square in Rome.The residence for official occasions is instead Villa Pamphili in Rome.
50The judicial power is a constitutional organ that can solve a civil, penal and administrative controversy, by applyng the law; this power belongs to the Magistracy. The Magistracy constitutes an autonomous and indipendent organ from any other power and it is a Constitutional Organ.
51In Italy the organ of selfgovernment of Magistracy is the Superior Council of Magistracy, presided by thePresident of the Republic.THE MAGISTRACY IS DIVIDED INTO THREE DEGREES:1. The Superior Court of Cassation is the judge of lost application in Italy. The residence of Court of Cassation is the Justice Palace, called “Palazzaccio” in Rome.2. The Court of appeal is a college of second degree that judges on sentences of ordinary court. It resides in the chief town of each district.3. The Court of Assize is a college that judges on penal matters and it is composed of eight judges and presided by a councilor magistrate of court of appeal. The Court of Assize has competence to judge the worse crimes.
52The President of the Italian Repubblic is the head of the state and rappresents the national unity. The Constitution explains all tasks and powers of the President of the Republic, that in detail are:
53In relationship with external representation (to accredit and to receive diplomatic functionaries, to ratify international treaties, etc.);In relationship with the exercise of the parliamentary functions ( to designate up to five life senators, etc.);In relationship with legislative functions (to promulgate the laws approved in the parliament, to issue decrees, legislative decrees and rulers, ecc.);
54In relationship with the exercise of the sovereignty of the people (to hold a referendum, etc.); In relationship with the executive function and the government’s policy (to designate the President of the Council of ministers and ministers, to be the chairman of the Supreme Council of Defense, etc.);In relationship with the exercise of the jurisdiction (to be the chairman of C.S.M., to designate three judges of Constitutional Court, to grant the grace, etc.);