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Integrated Pest Management

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Presentation on theme: "Integrated Pest Management"— Presentation transcript:

1 Integrated Pest Management

2 Define “Pest”

3 Definition of “Pest” (1) any organism that interferes with the activities and desires of humans or (2) any other form of terrestrial or aquatic plant or animal life or virus, bacteria, or other micro-organism which the Administrator declares to be a pest.

4 A Working Definition of “Pest”
An injurious and noxious or troublesome living organism [that] does not include a virus, bacteria, fungus or internal parasite that exists on humans or animals Includes insects, weeds, plant pathogens, birds, non-human mammals and other organisms which pose non-medical problems to humans and non-veterinary problems to animals

5 A pest must cause injury
In order for an organism to be considered a pest, a damaging stage of the organism must be present in high enough numbers to cause actual injury to something valued by people.

6 How do pests become pests?
New crop introductions New organism introductions Production system practices Removal of limiting factors Low tolerance

7 The Pest Complex The specific collection of pest species attacking a specific commodity or cropping system at any given time and location. A given complex is divisible into different “groups”: Invertebrates (arthropods, molluscs) Vertebrates (mammals, fish, birds) Weeds (perennials, summer/winter annuals) Plant Pathogens (fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes)

8 Organisms that cause economic damage are the ones of interest in pest management

9 IPM Defined IPM – A system that maintains the population of any pest, or pests, at or below the level that causes damage or loss, and which minimizes adverse impacts on society and environment. Attempts to balance the benefits of pest control actions with the costs when each is considered in the broadest possible terms.

10 Two Basic Decision Categories in IPM
Most Control Decisions Combine One of Each of the Following: Tactical vs. Strategic Tactics – Individual control options Strategies – Combinations of Tactics Preventative (Prophylactic) vs. Curative (Therapeutic) Preventative – Before pest is a threat Curative – When pest is threatening

11 IPM Strategies are Implemented Via Programs
Programs include pest monitoring and decision tools Monitoring & decision tools tie into the strategy.

12 We can manage pests using IPM
IPM includes: Education Habitat Modification Sanitation Exclusion Mechanical Controls Biological Controls Chemical Controls

13 IPM Strategies Education Habitat Modification
Teaching about pests and how to manage them through presentations, posters, displays, educational materials Habitat Modification Changing a pest's environment to make it undesirable to the pest

14 IPM Strategies Sanitation Exclusion
Keeping things clean and reducing clutter Exclusion Keeping pests out by screening windows, sealing holes, etc.

15 IPM Strategies Mechanical Control Biological Control Chemical control
Trapping pests Biological Control Using natural enemies to kill pests Chemical control Using low-toxic pesticides. These chemicals kill pests but impose some risk to humans

16 General Impact of Pests -- Injury
Consumption of plant parts Chemical toxins, elicitors, and signals Physical damage Loss of harvest quality Cosmetic damage Vectoring of pathogens Direct contamination

17 General Impact of Pests – Non-injury
Costs incurred to implement controls Environmental and social costs Regulatory costs (embargoes, quarantines, shipment costs, etc.)

18 Crop Injury in More Detail
Tissue Injury Leaves Structural Roots Flowers and Fruiting/Reproductive Tissues General Systemic Injury Weed Effects Competition for Water, Light, Nutrients Other Economic Effects

19 Structural Tissue Injury
Galls (may be on any tissue) Interference with transport Xylem injury Phloem injury Interference with structural support Shape/appearance impact Abnormal growth Shoot dieback

20 Galls Can occur on all tissues; leaves, stems/trunks, branches, roots, etc. Ash flower galls caused by a mite Galls on oak leaves from cynipid wasps Olive knot gall (caused by Pseudmomonas bacteria) on olive main trunk Western gall rust on Ponderosa pine branch Soybean roots with galls from root knot nematode (right) vs. healthy root (left).

21 Pest Videos

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