3 Definition of “Pest”(1) any organism that interferes with the activities and desires of humans or (2) any other form of terrestrial or aquatic plant or animal life or virus, bacteria, or other micro-organism which the Administrator declares to be a pest.
4 A Working Definition of “Pest” An injurious and noxious or troublesome living organism [that] does not include a virus, bacteria, fungus or internal parasite that exists on humans or animalsIncludes insects, weeds, plant pathogens, birds, non-human mammals and other organisms which pose non-medical problems to humans and non-veterinary problems to animals
5 A pest must cause injury In order for an organism to be considered a pest, a damaging stage of the organism must be present in high enough numbers to cause actual injury to something valued by people.
6 How do pests become pests? New crop introductionsNew organism introductionsProduction system practicesRemoval of limiting factorsLow tolerance
7 The Pest ComplexThe specific collection of pest species attacking a specific commodity or cropping system at any given time and location.A given complex is divisible into different “groups”:Invertebrates (arthropods, molluscs)Vertebrates (mammals, fish, birds)Weeds (perennials, summer/winter annuals)Plant Pathogens (fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes)
8 Organisms that cause economic damage are the ones of interest in pest management
9 IPM DefinedIPM – A system that maintains the population of any pest, or pests, at or below the level that causes damage or loss, and which minimizes adverse impacts on society and environment.Attempts to balance the benefits of pest control actions with the costs when each is considered in the broadest possible terms.
10 Two Basic Decision Categories in IPM Most Control Decisions Combine One of Each of the Following:Tactical vs. StrategicTactics – Individual control optionsStrategies – Combinations of TacticsPreventative (Prophylactic) vs. Curative (Therapeutic)Preventative – Before pest is a threatCurative – When pest is threatening
11 IPM Strategies are Implemented Via Programs Programs include pest monitoring and decision toolsMonitoring & decision tools tie into the strategy.
12 We can manage pests using IPM IPM includes:EducationHabitat ModificationSanitationExclusionMechanical ControlsBiological ControlsChemical Controls
13 IPM Strategies Education Habitat Modification Teaching about pests and how to manage them through presentations, posters, displays, educational materialsHabitat ModificationChanging a pest's environment to make it undesirable to the pest
14 IPM Strategies Sanitation Exclusion Keeping things clean and reducing clutterExclusionKeeping pests out by screening windows, sealing holes, etc.
15 IPM Strategies Mechanical Control Biological Control Chemical control Trapping pestsBiological ControlUsing natural enemies to kill pestsChemical controlUsing low-toxic pesticides. These chemicals kill pests but impose some risk to humans
16 General Impact of Pests -- Injury Consumption of plant partsChemical toxins, elicitors, and signalsPhysical damageLoss of harvest qualityCosmetic damageVectoring of pathogensDirect contamination
17 General Impact of Pests – Non-injury Costs incurred to implement controlsEnvironmental and social costsRegulatory costs (embargoes, quarantines, shipment costs, etc.)
18 Crop Injury in More Detail Tissue InjuryLeavesStructuralRootsFlowers and Fruiting/Reproductive TissuesGeneral Systemic InjuryWeed EffectsCompetition for Water, Light, NutrientsOther Economic Effects
19 Structural Tissue Injury Galls (may be on any tissue)Interference with transportXylem injuryPhloem injuryInterference with structural supportShape/appearance impactAbnormal growthShoot dieback
20 GallsCan occur on all tissues; leaves, stems/trunks, branches, roots, etc.Ash flower galls caused by a miteGalls on oak leaves from cynipid waspsOlive knot gall (caused by Pseudmomonas bacteria) on olive main trunkWestern gall rust on Ponderosa pine branchSoybean roots with galls from root knot nematode (right) vs. healthy root (left).