Presentation on theme: "Is Quebec English Distinct?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Is Quebec English Distinct? English Usage in Contemporary QuebecPamela GrantUniversité de SherbrookeMarch 2010
2 Is Quebec English Distinct? Outline 1. What is Quebec English?Who is an Anglophone?2. What is the context in which Quebec English has developed?Historical ContextCanadian Context3. What studies have been done on Quebec English ?Overview of the Literature on Quebec EnglishMethodology and premises for this presentation4. How is contemporary Quebec English distinct?Types of Distinct Usages in Quebec English5. Borrowings as sites of contact and reflections of the localPoliticalInstitutionalSocial and Cultural6. What are the rhetorical, ideological, and creative dynamics of English usage in Quebec?7. To what extent are these distinctive usages considered accepted usage?
3 Who is a Quebec Anglophone? Criteria used Anglophones in Quebec – 2006 CensusMother Tongue ,555Home language ,430First official language ,445Total population of Quebec 7,435,905
4 Quebec Anglophone Population by Mother Tongue %%%%Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Canada
5 Bilingualism Amongst Quebec Anglophones (Mother Tongue) %%%%Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Canada
6 Contrasting Attitudes Toward Borrowing Howard Richler: A Bawdy Language: How a Second-Rate Language Slept Its Way to the Top.Chantal Bouchard: La langue et le nombril: Histoire d’une obsession québécoise.
7 A Sampling of Non-Academic Publications New Official Saint-Leonard Dictionary atHeather Keith-Ryan and Sharon McCully; Quebec: Bonjour, eh? A Primer for English-Speakers. Bedford: Shelter and Picard, 1996.Josh Freed and Jon Kalina, eds. The Anglo Guide to Survival in Québec. Montreal: Eden Press, 1983.Countless newspaper articles, columns, editorials, letters to the editor….
8 Research: Overview of the Literature 1 Fee, Margery Frenglish in Quebec English newspapers. Journal of the Atlantic Provinces Linguistic AssociationFee, Margery Using commercial CD-ROMs for dialect research: The influence of Quebec French on Quebec English in newspapers. Paper presented at 1995 Methods in Dialectology.McArthur, Tom The English language as used in Quebec: A survey. Occasional Papers No. 3, Strathy Language Unit, Kingston: Queen's University.McArthur, Tom Quebec English. The Oxford companion to the English language, ed. by Tom McArthur. Oxford University Press.Manning, Alan, and Robert Eatock The influence of French on English in Quebec. The Ninth LACUS Forum. Columbia, S.C.: Hornbeam Press,Palmer, Joe. D. and Brigitte Harris Prestige differential and language change. Bulletin of the CAAL 12(1)Plaice, Mary Is that really English? Actes du Colloque sur la traduction et la qualité de langue, documentation du conseil de la langue françaiseRoberts, Roda Frenglish, or the Influence of French on English. Les Actes du 14e colloque de l'ACLA,
9 Research: Overview of the Literature 2 Jack Chambers, University of Toronto: Dialectology projectJack Chambers and Troy Heisler Dialect topology of Quebec City English. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 44(1):Charles Boberg The dialect topology of Montreal. English World-Wide 25:2:Charles Boberg, McGill University
10 Research: Overview of the Literature 3 Shana Poplack, James A. Walker, and Rebecca Malcolmson. “An English ‘like no other’?: Language Contact and Change in Quebec.” Canadian Journal of Linguistics/ Revue canadienne de linguistique 51(2/3): , 2006.
11 Types of Distinct Usages in Quebec English A. direct borrowingsB. high frequency usage of rarely used wordsC. semantic extensions (faux amis)D. loan-translations (calques)E. orthographic and typographical variationF. province-specific English expressions.
12 A. Direct Borrowings: Examples dépanneur, caisse populaire, metro, autoroute, allophone, brasserie, caisse, chansonnier, dégustation, fonds, garderie, maître, polyvalent, poutine, publisac, régie, tempo, terrasse, vélo, 5 à 7Maitre – reference from Circuit
13 Direct Borrowings: Examples of Acronyms and Initialisms Cegep, CLSC, DECSAQSQOLFZEC
14 A: Integration of Borrowings into English: Examples the depRad-Cananglos, francos and allosthe Habsthe Van Doos“Caisse pops to share manager” (headline from Stanstead Journal)
15 B. High-Frequency Usage of Rarely Used Words anglophone, francophonevalorize; specificity; collectivity, population; vernissage, fête, vedette, primordial; functionary; ameliorate
16 C: Semantic Extensions (faux amis) Examples of faux amis not generally accepted as native-speaker usage:Actually (for currently)Command (for order)Conference (for lecture)Delay (for period of time)Manifestation (for demonstration)Militant (for supporter)Professor (for teacher)Security (for safety)Syndicate (for union)
17 C: Semantic Extensions in Transition Examples of faux-amis in transition, gaining acceptance in Quebecanimatorco-ordinatesportable
19 Orthographic and Typographical Variation anglophone or AnglophoneQuébec or Quebec; Montréal or Montreal14 h or 2 p.m.
20 E: Province-Specific English Expressions moving dayconstruction holiday2½ apartmentcottageconfessional systemped dayROC and ROQ
21 Sites of Contact« L’emprunt, en situant quels objets, quelles valeurs sont adoptées ou non, deviendrait un indicateur des zones d’interculturalité et des zones de résistance. » (Dalila Morsly, 1995:45)
22 Sites of ContactPoliticalInstitutionalSocial and Cultural
23 Sites of Contact: Political The set of words that has been integrated most thoroughly into Quebec English and even beyond into Canadian and world English is the set of words that deals with Quebec politics, especially linguistic politics. Because much of the debate over these issues has been carried out in the national media and by some of the most important public figures in the country, the words used are quickly disseminated and integrated into the domain of Canadian political discourse. These borrowings are signs of cultural redefinition and the linguistic reconstruction of reality, just as are the new words associated with feminism and anti-racism. These words have a perceptible effect on the relationships in related words in the existing vocabulary because they are sites of struggle for power and are deployed in different ways by different people depending on their sociopolitical context and roles. (Margery Fee, 1991:17)
24 Sites of Contact: Institutional Proper names of businesses, government agencies, departments, etc.Education: cycles; secondary five; cegep, DEC, polyvalentLaw: civil law; Maîtrehôtel de ville; hôtel-dieu; palais de justice
25 Sites of Contact: Social and Cultural Vernissage5 à 7salon du livrecaisse populairedépanneurgarderiegîteguichetpoutine, steamie all-dressedreveillonchum and blondeflyé, kétaine, branchétéléroman
26 RHETORICAL, IDEOLOGICAL AND CREATIVE DYNAMICS ComplicityExotismDistancingCreativity
27 ComplicityAll we are saying is give piste a chance. (headline from Stanstead Journal about a bike trail)It’s a caisse of misfortune. (Gazette headline cited in McArthur 1989)(from the Stanstead Journal, headline of an article advocating the creation of a bicycle trail, 10/6/98)
28 Distancing and Negative Metalinguistic Commentary … the students won’t be in an entirely French environment and will therefore not be ‘francized’……so-called de souche francophones
29 Creativity“In the later twentieth century and early twenty-first, literary authors are performing the act of weirding English on a political level; they are daring to transcribe their communities and thus build identities”(4) .Source: Evelyn Nien-ming Ch’ien, Weird English. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2004.
30 AcceptabilityIs this phenomenon that we are calling Quebec English evidence of sophisticated wordplay on the part of bilingual, bi-dialectal individuals, or the result of the inability of less-than-fluent English speakers to control and differentiate between two separate language codes?