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Article Read the article Answer the questions. DIRT.

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Presentation on theme: "Article Read the article Answer the questions. DIRT."— Presentation transcript:

1 Article Read the article Answer the questions


3 The rest of today Research evidence for social Writing a social essay response

4 From reading homework- Social Context On wall boards What are the two types of socializing forces within the social explanation of gender ? Give three examples

5 What is different with this approach? The areas you need to cover here are 1.Social influences on gender (the influence of parents, peers, schools, media) 2.Cultural influences on gender role Social influences on gender is the one section of the specification where there is no theory or overall explanation. For an exam question if you are asked to outline research into social influences on gender or outline cultural influences on gender, the AO1 will be studies. This also affects how you write the Evaluation- How?

6 Three explanations for research findings Social Learning theory suggests gender… Gender Schema suggests Biosocial suggests

7 Social learning theory Social Learning Theory (SLT, Bandura & Walters 1963). Reinforcement - Mischel (1966, 1970) argued reinforcement is significant in children developing a concept of their gender. Positive reinforcement – i.e. praise or smiling for doing something gender ‘appropriate’ is more likely to be repeated. Negative reinforcement – behaviour that avoids or escapes from something unpleasant. i.e. a boy not playing with a doll house to escape negative comments form his friends.

8 SLT… Observational Learning – SLT suggests children observe role models, (especially same –sex) this may be internalised and performed themselves i.e. observing mum pushing a push chair. Which process, reinforcement or observational learning do you think will have more of an impact on a child’s gender formation?

9 Two types of socializing ‘forces’ Informal socializing agents People in which close contact occurs:- Parents Siblings Extended family Friends Formal socializing agents Distant, but still exert an influence on individual behaviour:- Education – teachers, school, curriculum Law – police, courts, government. Media

10 Social Cognitive Theory (SCT):Schema First, SCT agrees with SLT that early gender development is formed through reinforcement & observational learning. However, the child's’ cognition (mental processes) also plays a role, by: Mentally rehearsing the behaviour they observe and deciding whether to performing it themselves- based on whether this does meet their gender stereotypes (schema)

11 Biosocial approach Research would suggest parents/schools would respond to the individuals physical sex It is this response that shapes gender identity

12 Research 1. Read the research and note next to them which support/ challenge the following Social learning Social cognitive/Schema Biosocial 2. Use the studies to complete the grid

13 Starter Read the article and answer the following 1.What three methods were employed to remove the impact stereotypes on the child? 2.Traditionally toys we played with reflected.……. 3.What reason does Beck Laxton give for raising her child gender neutrally? 4.What does Beck suggest the real issue that causes affront?

14 Today Explain research findings focusing on social influences on gender roles Comment on and evaluate the quality of research evidence ( Methodology, reliability, validity) Analyse and Evaluate Social Influences on Gender

15 Yesterday-Evaluation of Research Use the grid to complete evaluation of research Consider Inconsistent evidence Research design issues Alternative Explanations

16 DIRT 2- From your essays Linking research evaluation back to the question “ Social Influence on Gender” Findings based on the sample cannot be generalised to other cultures…. Much of this research provides evidence of correlations between parents and children’s schema but they do not identify…… ____________ …….. Studies within this area focus on naturalistic observations this is a strength because they have high ecological validity…..

17 Pair work- Use your grid Use your grid to construct a paragraph for your given study. Lead by the study and follow your grid. (write on handout) “Langlois and Downs (1980) conducted a…..” Extension- Swap paragraphs and peer assess each others Anything you would add/change? Sentence 1 AO1-The evidence Sentence 2 AO1- Conclusion and/or implications Sentence 3 Explanations for the findings – SLT/ effect on gender schema/biosocial approach etc Sentence 4 Commentary on the methodology and how this affects validity Sentence 5 Impact and Wider evaluation

18 Swap paragraphs Now Re-write your new paragraph but.. This time lead by the theory e.g “Social learning theory argues….” “Learning explanations of gender emphasise the role of…” “The Biosocial approach suggests…..” “Parent’s Gender schemas are important in shaping gender...”

19 Essay plan 1.Form an essay plan using your grid 2.Provide this in a flow chart/ list Have you included enough evaluation? Have you included IDA? Have you included wider evaluation/nice conclusion (Examiners like this for this essay)?

20 Plenary Write one thing you have improved on this lesson Write one thing you need further improvement on

21 Drawing a conclusion Examiners like to see a clear conclusion drawn for this social essay as you are touching on so many different ideas This just means a really good wider evaluation

22 Sample Essay “Discuss social influences on gender roles.” 1.Read the essay 2.Where there is a number- the examiners comment has been removed Write a possible comment for each number

23 Point-by-point comments 1.Concise outline of conditioning applied to gender. 2. Descriptive account of evidence supporting reinforcement. This would gain more AO2/3 credit if there was some evaluation of the reliability/validity of the evidence. 3. This paragraph provides effective well-developed commentary which could have been elaborated by discussion of the potential for cultural bias. 4. Useful to support this with research evidence. 5.Reasonable attempt to use issues and debates to comment on social influences and to analyse the arguments in terms of different approaches.

24 Examiner comments The essay shows sound knowledge and understanding of social influences and the candidate provides a reasonably accurate and detailed description of a range of sources and processes of influence. The commentary is variable in quality: however, there are a number of evaluation points that have been elaborated effectively and reflect understanding of both methodological issues and more philosophical issues, so taking the answer to the top of ‘Reasonable’ for AO2/3. The answer is well focused throughout and there is a reasonably clear line of argument. It is a genuine discussion, with the main commentary and elaboration interwoven. It is a pity that the discussion of issues was not also interwoven. Quality of written communication is sound with appropriate use of grammar, punctuation and psychological terminology. Total 19/24

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