3 EXAM STYLE QUESTIONS (ESQ) Explanations BIOLOGICALJanuary 2011Outline a biological explanation of dysfunctional behaviour To what extent are explanations of dysfunctional behaviour reductionist? BEHAVIOURALOutline a behavioural explanation of dysfunctional behaviour Discuss strengths and limitations of different explanations of dysfunctional behaviour COGNTIVEJune 2011How might cognitive psychologists explain dysfunctional behaviour? Assess the appropriateness of different explanations of dysfunctional behaviour January 2013Outline a cognitive explanation of dysfunctional behaviour Compare explanations of dysfunctional behaviour 
4 Biological Explanation of Dysfunctional Behaviour Activity 1 Starter:Based on your knowledge and common sense:Mind map/list what you expect the Biological Explanation of Dysfunctional Behaviour is/includes?Biological Explanation of Dysfunctional Behaviour
5 Activity 2: Checking and discussing definitions:
6 How could we research the influence of biology on behaviour? GenesHormonesBrain structure
7 2a. Summary Questions/Homework Check: BIOLOGICAL GOTTESMAN, 1976 AimsMethod & ProceduresWhat was the aim of this study?What research method was used in this study?What happened?BackgroundResultsWhat issue did Gottesman want to resolve?What did all 3 adoption studies show?What were the concordance rates for biological siblings?What were the concordance rates for monozygotic twins?What were the concordance rates for dizygotic twins?SampleWhat are the details of the sample?
8 2a. Summary of study: BIOLOGICAL APPROACH Gottesman, 1976 AimTo review research on family, twin and adoption studies to test from evidence of a genetic cause.BackgroundA dispute had arisen between those who believed that schizophrenia was caused by environmental factors such as schizophrenia and abnormal parenting and those who believed there was a genetic cause. Twin and adoption studies begun in late 1960’s attempted to resolve the issue.SampleIn total there were 711 participants in the adoption studies and 210 monozygotic twins and 317 dyzygotic twin sets studied.
9 2a. Summary Information: BIOLOGICAL APPROACH Gottesman, 1976 MethodA review article of three adoption and five twin studies between 1967 and 1976ProcedureConcordance rates (how often both twins were diagnosed with schizophrenia) and incidence of schizophrenia in parents and children in biological and adoptive families were calculated in the study.Results & ConclusionAll three adoption studies showed increased incidences of schizophrenia in adopted children with a schizophrenic parent, but normal children fostered with a schizophrenic parent did not develop schizophrenia. In one study, the biological siblings of children with schizophrenia were found to have a 19.2% chance of also developing the condition. The twin studies also supported the biological explanation, with monozygotic twins showing a 58% concordance rate compared to 12% in dizygotic twins.
10 ResearchAny issues?Kendler (1985) has shown that first-degree relatives of those with schizophrenia are 18 times more at risk than the general population.Tienari (1969): studied adopted away offspring of biological mothers who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia + matched control group of adopted offspring of mothers who had not been diagnosed with any mental disorder. Adoptees ranged from 5-7 yrs at the start of the study and all had begun separation from their mother before. 4. 7% of the adopted away adoptees developed schizophrenia, compared to 1.5% of the controls.One of the studies by Kety (1975) found that biologicalsiblings of children with schizophrenia showed a muchhigher percentage of schizophrenia (19.2 per cent)compared with adoptive siblings (6.3 per cent).Sherrington et al. (1988) has found a gene located on chromosome 5 which has been linked in a small number of extended families where they have the disorderGottesman and Shields’ own study (1972)this was 58 per cent in monozygotic twins, meaningthat if one twin had schizophrenia then there was a58 per cent chance the other would have it, comparedwith a 12 per cent concordance rate for dizygotic twins.
11 3a. Evaluation Questions: biological Identify strengths and weakness of the biological explanation for Dysfunctional BehaviourTo what extent does genetics play a role in the cause of Dysfunctional Behaviour?Has a single gene been identified as a contributor to Dysfunctional Behaviour? Why is this an issue?Is there any other support for this approach?Is there an alternative way to explain dysfunctional behaviour?
12 3a. Debate Questions: BIOLOGICAL Does this research (Gottesman) offer support for the role of nature or nurture?If a genetic element can be identified, does this suggest we can find a cure?Is this approach useful?
13 Activity 3: Evaluation of Gottesman: Strengths and weaknesses
14 3a. Evaluation & Debates: BIOLOGICAL Both genes and environment are each necessary but not sufficient for developing schizophrenia.There were disagreements on the diagnosis of schizophrenia across the studies.No single gene for schizophrenia has been identified.Nature-Nurture is a clear debate here with the use of twin studies which offer the possibility to test genes against environment.Reliability of diagnosis could be an issue here.Usefulness – the research suggests potential genetic cures but a need to isolate many genes first and also investigate environmental causes, it yet unspecified, although cannabis is one suspect at the moment.
15 What would we include in this 10 mark Q? 6-8 marksPsychological terminology is competent and mainly accurate. Description of evidence is mainly accurate and relevant, coherent and reasonably detailed.Elaboration/use of example/quality of description is good.There is some evidence of interpretation and explanation in the context of the question.The answer has good structure and organisation.The answer is mostly grammatically correct with few spelling errors.9-10 marksCorrect and comprehensive use of psychological terminology.Description of evidence is accurate, relevant, coherent and detailed.Elaboration/use of example/quality of description is very good and the ability to interpret/explain the evidence selected in the context of the question is very good.The answer is competently structured and organised.Answer is mostly grammatically correct with occasional spelling errors.
16 Homework Answer the 10 mark Q Use the guidance to help you and or see me if you need clarification.Due: