REVIEW: 6 Elements of an Argument
Hook Claim Concessions Refutations Support Summary/Call to action
HOOK & CLAIM Hook = opening that grabs the reader’s attention and establishes a connection between the reader and writer Quote- “Grades don't measure anything other than your relevant obedience to a manager.” Question- Do you believe that grades are an accurate measurement of a student’s success? Anecdote (short and interesting story or an amusing event)- Steve Jobs, Bill Gates, and Mark Zuckerberg were not A students, and none of them even finished college. Statistic- Three out of five millionaires did not graduate high school with honors. Claim = clear and straightforward statement of the writer’s belief and what is being argued EX: The positive motivational effects of receiving letter grades are overpowered by the negative impact of competition between students. IN WHAT PART OF AN ARGUMENT ESSAY DO YOU THINK YOU’LL FIND THE HOOK AND CLAIM?
CONCESSIONS & REFUTATIONS
Concessions = restatements of arguments made by the other side Certainly, grades do serve as a powerful motivational tool for students. The fear of failure gets otherwise disengaged students to complete their work, and the desire to receive excellent marks (A's) motivates good students to push themselves to do their very best work. Refutations = writer’s arguments against those opposing viewpoints and why the writer’s arguments are more valid On the other hand, the positive motivational effects are overpowered by the negative impact of competition between students.
SUPPORT Support = reasoning behind the argument; can include evidence, as well as logical and emotional appeals; it may also anticipate objections and provide reasoning to overcome those objections Students who don't earn those A's often feel like failures, even though they have learned a great deal. What is gained from the B is often lost in the desired an A. Often students compare their grades with others in an effort to see how they rank. This relative status has little to do with how much an individual is actually learning.
SUMMARY/ CALL TO ACTION
Summary/Call to Action = closing statement with a final plea for action In short, we must find another way to motivate students that puts the emphasis on learning rather than on the delineation of winners and losers. IN WHAT PART OF AN ARGUMENT ESSAY DO YOU THINK YOU’LL FIND THE SUMMARY AND CALL TO ACTION?
Student Sample Last class period, you wrote a paragraph responding to the “As If” article which stated that reading is a teenager’s “ideal” activity. Read the Student Sample on the next slide. Identify all six elements of an argument within this example Record each element found within the paragraph on the “Elements of an Argument” handout
I just read a 600-page book in a day and a half. I couldn't put it down. It had everything a girl could want: romance, friendship, adventure, and fun characters. Unfortunately, it’s the only novel I've read all year. Reading just isn't my top priority, and most of my friends would agree. After reading this article, I asked ten of my friends what their “ideal” activity would be, and not one person answered “reading.” Most of my friends would rather go shopping or hang out with friends. My smartest friend, who has a 4.0, said, “I read at least an hour each night for school. Why would I choose to read more than that?” I figure if I spent the entire day as an accountant, I would not want to go home and do math problems! Plus, I have no time. Between soccer, band practice, and my friends, I could watch a movie for two hours or read a book for two weeks! I’m sure the person who says that the book is definitely better than the movie is not a teenager who has no time to read. I can also hear my Mom telling me that someday I will wish I had read more books. Perhaps she is right, but I don’t want that now. What I want now is three extra hours in every day because I have homecoming to help plan and homework to do. So until another “can’t miss” book comes out, my to-do list will not include reading a novel.
Revising Now, get the one paragraph response to the “AS If” article you wrote last class from the box. If you cannot find it or weren’t here last class, start from scratch. ON A BRAND NEW SHEET OF PAPER- revise your writing to incorporate all 6 elements of an argument. Make sure to include the proper MLA heading in cursive. **If you weren’t here last class, the prompt is on the next slide. Identify the elements of the argument- MAKE SURE TO ANNOTATE CORRECTLY! THIS IS FOR A GRADE Highlight the hook; Underline the claim *Star* concessions [Bracket] refutations (parenthesis) Support Circle call to action Make sure your name and class period are on the paper, staple the “elements of an argument” worksheet to the back and TURN IT IN TO THE BOX!
Respond to the following prompt:
Judith Rosen’s article, “AS IF!”, states that teens said their “ideal” activity is reading a book. For the majority of teens, do you think reading a book is their ideal activity? Explain why you agree or disagree, and cite specific examples to support your position.
Once you are completely finished…
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