Presentation on theme: "For centuries, people based their beliefs on their interpretations of what they saw going on in the world around them without testing their ideas to determine."— Presentation transcript:
For centuries, people based their beliefs on their interpretations of what they saw going on in the world around them without testing their ideas to determine the validity of these theories — in other words, they didn’t use the scientific method to arrive at answers to their questions. Rather, their conclusions were based on untested observations.
Before the Scientific Method Observation: Every year in the spring, the Nile River flooded areas of Egypt along the river, leaving behind nutrient-rich mud that enabled the people to grow that year’s crop of food. However, along with the muddy soil, large numbers of frogs appeared that weren’t around in drier times. “Conclusion”: It was perfectly obvious to people back then that muddy soil gave rise to the frogs.
“It has often been said that the greatest discovery in science was the discovery of the scientific method of discovery.” --Dr. James K. Feibleman, author of Scientific Method (1972)
Identify a Problem Be specific And, in order for the scientific method to answer the question it must be about something that you can measure, preferably with a number.
Form a Hypothesis Also known as an “educated guess” Use your background knowledge to help you determine the hypothesis Construct a Hypothesis: A hypothesis is an educated guess about how things work: "If _____[I do this] _____, then _____[this]_____ will happen." You must state your hypothesis in a way that you can easily measure, and of course, your hypothesis should be constructed in a way to help you answer your original question.
Research background Information Use books, experts, internet, journals etc. Sometimes you will find the answer to your question, because someone has already done an experiment
Experiment Must have a control group and an experimental group The experimental group can only have one variable Manipulated vs responding variables You should also repeat your experiments several times to make sure that the first results weren't just an accident.
Collect Data Make observations – technology used Quantitative Qualitative Form Data Tables, charts, graphs
Form a Conclusion The conclusion must be based upon the data collected. If your conclusion supports the hypothesis then it is called a “theory” Scientists often find that their hypothesis was false, and in such cases they will construct a new hypothesis starting the entire process of the scientific method over again.
Retest This will either reject the first conclusion, or it may solidify it. If the theory is shown to be true for repeated experiments it will eventually be called a “Scientific Law”, also known as a fact. Communicate Your Results!