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Cell Energy: ATP, Photosynthesis & Cellular RespirationChapters 8 & 9
Energy for the Cell ATP= Adenosine Triphosphate 3 major parts to ATP: 1. Adenine Adenosine 2. Ribose (sugar) 3. Three phosphates
adenine three phosphates ribose
How is energy released from ATP?Break a bond between 2nd & 3rd phosphates This releases ENERGY to be used by cells!
3rd phosphate is broken off
ATP breaking down to ADP and releasing ENERGY!
ADP= Adenosine DiphosphateOnly 2 phosphates instead of 3 ADP is recycled to make ATP [add a phosphate] If ADP/ATP is not reused, we would eat 24/7 just to have enough energy!
ADP being recycled to create ATP once again.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis = process trapping light energy to make GLUCOSE [chemical (food) energy]
6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight C6H12O6 + 6O2 6 carbon dioxide 6 water1 glucose 6 oxygen
Where does photosynthesis take place?PLANTS only; in the LEAVES In plant cell, inside CHLOROPLASTS
Chlorophyll = pigment that captures light energy from sunfound in THYLAKOID DISCS in chloroplasts
http://www. nicerweb. com/doc/class/bio100/Locked/media/ch06/DB06100
Why are Plants Green? Chlorophyll absorbs all wavelengths of light EXCEPT for green. Green wavelengths are REFLECTED most
Green wavelength Green not absorbed so it gets reflected – that’s why plants look green!
Photosynthesis occurs in 2 phases:1. Light Dependent Reactions 2. Light Independent Reactions
Light DEPENDENT rxns (Occurs in thylakoids)takes light energy to make ATP & NADPH (needed for light indep. rxns) converts H2O to O2
Three Processes: a. Electron transport chain (ETC) 1) light hits chlorophyll & energizes e- 2) e- move down a chain to make NADPH (a form of energy)
b. Photolysis = splits water to make oxygen , hydrogen ions & electrons (to replace e- used in ETC)2H2O 4H+ + 4e- + 02
c. Chemiosmosis moves H+ (made in photolysis) to stroma (space inside chloroplast) to make ATP
2. Light INDEPENDENT Reactions (CALVIN CYCLE) = makes glucose from CO2 using NADPH & ATP made in light dep. rxns
a. Occurs in light or darkb. Occurs in stroma c. Glucose has 6 carbons & CO2 has only 1 carbon Calvin cycle must go around 6 times to make 1 glucose
Light O2 Sugars CO2 NADPH ATP ADP + P NADP+ Chloroplast Light Dependent Reactions Calvin Cycle
CELLULAR RESPIRATION = process that breaks down glucose to make ATP occurs PLANT & ANIMAL cells
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP 1 glucose 6 oxygen 6 carbon dioxide6 water
Glucose Glycolysis Oxygen present No oxygen present Aerobic Respiration Fermentation
Glycolysis – breaking down glucose into pyruvic acidoccurs in cytoplasm ANAEROBIC = does not require oxygen (can still occur if O2 present)
Makes : 4 ATP Uses: 2 ATP NET TOTAL: 2 ATP
A. Aerobic Respiration = breaks down glucose to make ATP when O2 is availableoccurs in MITOCHONDRIA 2 major stages (after glycolysis)
1) Citric Acid Cycle (Kreb’s Cycle) – uses pyruvic acid (from glycolysis) to make ATP & CO2occurs in MATRIX [space within mitochondria] AEROBIC = requires oxygen makes 2 ATP
2) Electron Transport Chain (ETC) – Makes H2O & ATP from O2 and H+Occurs in CRISTAE (inner membrane) AEROBIC makes 34 ATP
38 ATP! ENERGY MADE FROM AEROBIC RESPIRATION: Glycolysis = 2 ATPCitric Acid Cycle = 2 ATP (Kreb’s Cycle) ETC = 34 ATP From 1 glucose 38 ATP!
Glucose Cytoplasm MitochondrionGlycolysis Cytoplasm Pyruvic acid Electrons carried in NADH Krebs Cycle Electrons carried in NADH and FADH2 Electron Transport Chain Mitochondrion
B. FERMENTATION (Anaerobic Respiration)= breaks down glucose to make ATP when no O2 is available begins after glycolysis
2 major types: 1) Lactic acid fermentation –glucose breaks down to make lactic acid & CO2 makes 2 ATP (including glycolysis)
occurs in bacteria [yogurt, cheese, etc.] occurs in human muscle cells [under heavy exercise, not enough O2 – lactic acid builds up in muscles & makes you sore]
2) Ethyl alcohol fermentation –glucose breaks down to make ethyl alcohol & CO2makes 2 ATP (including glycolysis) occurs in yeast [bread rises because CO2 bubbles formed in dough]
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