Presentation on theme: "Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy"— Presentation transcript:
1 Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy 6H2O + 6CO ATPC6H12O6 + 6O2 Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical EnergyGlucose + Oxygen > Water + Carbon Dioxide +ATP
2 Glucose Glucose is the fuel most commonly used by the cell The breakdown ofglucose is AEROBICRespiration withoxygen.
3 Cellular RespirationA process in which glucose molecule is broken down and ATP is released.
4 Energy IN A Cell The energy source we need is ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate).ATP consist of: an adenosine molecule, a ribose sugar, an 3 phosphate groups.Cells need a constant supply of ATP.Having ATP is like having your battery charged.
5 Aerobic Respiration Requires oxygen Aerobic respiration-process in which ATP is made using oxygen.Occurs in the mitochondria of the cell.Aerobic respiration happens in ALL aerobic organisms (plants/animals)
6 Cellular Respiration1. g. Students know the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical-bond energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide.Mitochondria consist of a matrix where three-carbon fragments originating from carbohydrates are broken down (to CO2 and water) and of the cristae where ATP is produced. Cell respiration occurs in a series of reactions in which fats, proteins, and carbohydrates, mostly glucose, are broken down to produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy. Most of the energy from cell respiration is converted into ATP, a substance that powers most cell activities.1. i.* Students know how chemiosmotic gradients in the mitochondria and chloroplast store energy for ATP production.Enzymes called ATP synthase, located within the thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts and cristae membranes in mitochondria, synthesize most ATP within cells. The thylakoid and cristae membranes are impermeable to protons except at pores that are coupled with the ATP synthase. The potential energy of the proton concentration gradient drives ATP synthesis as the protons move through the ATP synthase pores. The proton gradient is established by energy furnished by a flow of electrons passing through the electron transport system located within these membranes.
7 Citric Acid Cycle or Kreb Cycle Three Stages of Cellular RespirationGlycolysisCitric Acid Cycle or Kreb CycleElectron Transport
8 1st STEP Glycolysis—aerobic or anerobic (no oxygen) Takes place in cytoplasm.Glucose main food source.Makes only 2 ATP’s.
9 2nd Step Citric Acid Cycle or Kreb Cycle Occurs in the mitochondria. Oxygen must be present.Carbon Dioxide is given off.ENERGY is held in bonds of hydrogen.Makes 2 ATPs.
10 3rd Step Electron Transport Chain Bonds are broken. Energy is released.Hydrogen and Oxygen bond (Water is given off).34 ATP’s are made.
11 ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION Does not require oxygen.Anaerobic respiration-process of making ATP without oxygen.Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cellTwo types of anaerobic respirationLactic acid fermentationAlcoholic fermentation
12 Cellular Respiration Fermentation in the Absence of Oxygen 2 Typeseach identified by its waste products(1) Alcoholic Fermentation(2) Lactic Acid Fermentation
13 Lactic Acid Fermentation Occurs in animal cellswhen oxygen is notpresent.SORE MUSCLESwill occur.
15 Alcoholic Fermentation Some organisms carry out alcoholic fermentation. This wasdiscovered by Louis Pasteur in his study of the chemistryof wines. Yeasts break down the sugars in the juice topyruvate by glycolysis, then the pyruvate is dismantled toyield CO2 and ETHANOL. If the fermentation continuesuntil all the sugar is used, a dry wine is produced. Iffermentation is stopped before all the sugar is used, thena sweet wine is produced.
18 PhotosynthesisProcess by which plants and other autotrophs store the energy of sunlight into sugars.Requires sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide.6 CO H20 C6H12O O2Occurs in the leaves of plants in organelles called chloroplasts.
19 FACTS TO KNOW Site for Photosynthesis: chloroplast Chlorophyll- Green plantpigment found in theOrgan of Photosynthesis:Leaf
20 Photosynthesis: The Chemical Process Occurs in two main phases.Light reactionsDark reactions (aka – the Calvin Cycle)Light reactions are the “photo” part of photosynthesis. Light is absorbed by pigments.Dark reactions are the “synthesis” part of photosynthesis. Trapped energy from the sun is converted to the chemical energy of sugars.
21 LIGHT REACTION (LIGHT – DEPENDENT) 1.DEPENDS UPON LIGHT2. LIGHT IS ABSORBED3. WATER IS SPLIT
22 DARK REACTION (LIGHT-INDEPENDENT) LIGHT IS NOT NECESSARY.2. THIS REACTION FOLLOWS THE LIGHT REACTION.3. SUGAR (GLUCOSE) IS MADE.4. CARBON DIOXIDE IS GIVEN OFF.
23 ALL FOOD COMES DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY FROM PLANTS PHOTOSYNTHESISThis reaction is one of the most important chemical reactions that takes place on earth.ALL FOOD COMES DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY FROM PLANTS