Presentation on theme: "Aim: What is genetic engineering? Do Now: Read pg. 53 What are the different methods used to manipulate DNA? Hw: Re-read pgs. 52-53. Answer Regents Practice."— Presentation transcript:
Aim: What is genetic engineering? Do Now: Read pg. 53 What are the different methods used to manipulate DNA? Hw: Re-read pgs. 52-53. Answer Regents Practice C 18-22 on pg. 57, using complete sentences. Test Friday on Topic 3, Tutoring Thursday Afterschool
Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineers can alter the DNA code of living organisms. Selective Breeding Recombinant DNA Gel Electrophoresis Transgenic Organisms
Recombinant DNA The ability to combine the DNA of one organism with the DNA of another organism. Recombinant DNA technology was first used in the 1970’s with bacteria.
Recombinant Bacteria 1.Remove bacterial DNA (plasmid). 1.Cut the Bacterial DNA with “restriction enzymes”. 1.Cut the DNA from another organism with “restriction enzymes”. 1.Combine the cut pieces of DNA together with another enzyme and insert them into bacteria. 1.Reproduce the recombinant bacteria. 1.The foreign genes will be expressed in the bacteria.
Benefits of Recombinant Bacteria 1.Bacteria can make human insulin or human growth hormone. 1.Bacteria can be engineered to “eat” oil spills.
Selective Breeding Breed only those plants or animals with desirable traits People have been using selective breeding for 1000’s of years with farm crops and domesticated animals.
Aim: How can we analyze DNA? Do Now: 1. What are the advantages of selective breeding? Give an example. Hw: Read pgs. 173-174 on Gel Electrophoresis, Answer questions Jan 2012 Regents 7-9, 29, 55. Bio Tutoring Thursday, Test Fri (Outline will be Posted Tonight)
How to Create a Genetically Modified Plant 1.Create recombinant bacteria with desired gene. 2. Allow the bacteria to “infect" the plant cells. 3. Desired gene is inserted into plant chromosomes.
Genetically Modified Organisms Genetically modified plant can be engineered to be resistant to pests by inserting a gene that will produce a toxin to kill pests (insects that feed off plant).
Create a list of advantages & disadvantages of GMO’s
Bacteria Some bacteria produce antibiotic resistant genes which will allow them to grow in the presence of the antibiotic. Ex: if you have an infection from a bacteria is resistant to penicillin, it will continue to reproduce if exposed to the antibiotic penicillin.
The DNA of plants and animals can also be altered. PLANTS 1.disease-resistant and insect-resistant crops 2. sweeter, larger fruit 3. 70-75% of food in supermarket is genetically modified.
What do you think about eating genetically modified foods?
Genetically modified organisms are called transgenic organisms. TRANSGENIC ANIMALS 1.Mice – used to study human immune system 2. Chickens – more resistant to Infections 3. Cows – increase milk supply and leaner meat 4. Goats, sheep and pigs – produce human proteins in their milk
Human DNA in a Goat Cell This goat contains a human gene that codes for a blood clotting agent. The blood clotting agent can be harvested in the goat’s milk.. Transgenic Goat
Desired DNA is added to an egg cell. How to Create a Transgenic Animal
Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR PCR allows scientists to make many copies of a piece of DNA. 1.Heat the DNA so it “unzips”. 2. Add the complementary nitrogenous bases. 3. Allow DNA to cool so the complementary strands can “zip” together.
Gel Electrophoresis This technology allows scientists to identify someone’s DNA!
Steps Involved in Gel Electrophoresis 1. “Cut” DNA sample with restriction enzymes. 2. Run the DNA fragments through a gel. 3. Bands will form in the gel. 4. Everyone’s DNA bands are unique and can be used to identify a person. 5. DNA bands are like “genetic fingerprints”.
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