Presentation on theme: "DNA Technology The Human Genome Project, Recombinant DNA Technology Gene Therapy Stem Cell Therapy Transgenic Organisms Cloning Gel Electrophoresis (DNA."— Presentation transcript:
DNA Technology The Human Genome Project, Recombinant DNA Technology Gene Therapy Stem Cell Therapy Transgenic Organisms Cloning Gel Electrophoresis (DNA Fingerprinting)
Genetic Engineering Genetic Engineers can alter the DNA code of living organisms. Selective Breeding Recombinant DNA PCR Cloning Gel Electrophoresis Transgenic Organisms The Human Genome Project
The Human Genome Project (HGP) Took place from 1990-2003 Scientists from all over the world sequenced the DNA of hundreds of people of all races. They discovered that all humans have over 3 billion nitrogen bases (A, T, C, G ) It was also discovered that all humans (regardless of outward appearance) share 99.99% of their DNA
Stars who benefited from the HGP Angelina Jolie Had her DNA sequenced, and discovered she had the BRCA-1 gene (breast cancer)…and ovarian cancer She discovered she had the gene BEFORE it happened, and removed both of her breasts (mastectomy), and had reconstructive surgery.
The HGP Since the completion of the HGP, two monumental applications (uses) have been discovered): 1. Disease Prediction: scientists can look at specific genes and tell if you inherited a disease. 2. Gene Therapy: if you have a defective gene, it can now be corrected
Selective Breeding Breed only those plants or animals with desirable traits People have been using selective breeding for 1000’s of years with farm crops and domesticated animals.
Recombinant DNA The ability to combine the DNA of one organism with the DNA of another organism. Also known as “Bacterial Transformation” Recombinant DNA technology was first used in the 1970’s with bacteria.
Recombinant Bacteria 1.Remove bacterial DNA (plasmid). 2.Cut the Bacterial DNA with “restriction enzymes”. 3.Cut the DNA from another organism with “restriction enzymes”. 4.Combine the cut pieces of DNA together with another enzyme and insert them into bacteria. 5.Reproduce the recombinant bacteria. 6.The foreign genes will be expressed in the bacteria.
Benefits of Recombinant Bacteria 1.Bacteria can make human insulin or human growth hormone. 2. Bacteria can be engineered to “eat” oil spills.
Stem cell therapy Unspecialized cells that can be manipulated (changed) into any cell type under the right laboratory conditions. These cells are healing/repairing cells. Have been used to treat HIV, Cancer, and other disorders It is unlawful to obtain stem cells from embryos (unborn babies); now stem cells are harvested (collected) from bone marrow and umbilical cord blood
Cloning Creating an identical (exact) copy of an organism asexually (no sexual intercourse). Dolly the sheep was cloned. She passed away from health complications. She inherited the same diseases that her donor egg mother had.
TV Example ABC’s “Family Matters” Steve Urkel (nerd) altered his DNA to become Stefan Urquelle (cool guy) to win the affections of Laura Winslow (this upset his present girlfriend Myra Munkhouse). This would be an example of genetic engineering (GMO). Later in the show, Steve cloned himself so that Laura could have Stefan, and Myra Munkhouse could keep Steve.
The DNA of plants and animals can also be altered. PLANTS 1.Disease-resistant and insect-resistant crops 2. Hardier fruit (stronger, more durable fruit) 3. 70-75% of food in supermarket is genetically modified.
How to Create a Genetically Modified Plant 1.Create recombinant bacteria with desired gene. 2. Allow the bacteria to “infect" the plant cells. 3. Desired gene is inserted into plant chromosomes. Foods are genetically modified to make them bigger and better!
What do you think about eating genetically modified foods? Get it??
Genetically modified organisms are called transgenic organisms. TRANSGENIC ANIMALS 1.Mice – used to study human immune system 2.Chickens – more resistant to infections 3.Cows – increase milk supply and leaner meat 4. Goats, sheep and pigs – produce human proteins in their milk
Human DNA in a Goat Cell This goat contains a human gene that codes for a blood clotting agent. The blood clotting agent can be harvested in the goat’s milk.. Transgenic Goat
Desired DNA is added to an egg cell. How to Create a Transgenic Animal
Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR PCR allows scientists to make many copies of a piece of DNA. 1.Heat the DNA so it “unzips”. 2. Add the complementary nitrogenous bases. 3. Allow DNA to cool so the complementary strands can “zip” together. PCR= DNA Copy Machine
Gel Electrophoresis (DNA Fingerprinting) This technology allows scientists to identify someone’s DNA! Used in Crime Scene Investigation (robbery, murder, rape) Used in paternity
Steps Involved in Gel Electrophoresis 1. “Cut” DNA sample with restriction enzymes. 2. Run the DNA fragments through a gel. 3. Bands will form in the gel. 4. Everyone’s DNA bands are unique and can be used to identify a person. 5. DNA bands are like “genetic fingerprints”.
Gel Electrophoresis Example Mrs. Smith has a baby named Jessica. She believes one of two men can be the father of her child. A paternity test is done and the results are shown above. Which of the 2 men are baby Jessica’s father? Hint: Half of the DNA should match mom, half should match dad Use a ruler to find the father!
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