Ecology the study of the RELATIONSHIPS of living things to EACH OTHER and their ENVIRONMENT (surroundings)
Ecosystems ALL of the LIVING communities of an area together with the NON-LIVING parts of their ENVIRONMENT
Parts of an Ecosystem LIVING community (BIOTIC factors) ENERGY input and use NUTRIENT cycling NON-LIVING environment (ABIOTIC factors)
Ecology involves the study of the following things: The interactions between members of the BIOTIC community (the living plants, animals and microbes) The interactions between members of the BIOTIC community and the NON-LIVING environment The interactions between the ABIOTIC environmental factors (such as light- temperature-moisture)
The Environment and Energy Energy – the ABILITY to do WORK All LVING ORGANISMS use energy for life processes.
Forms of Energy: 1. Light 2. Heat 3. Chemical 4. Mechanical 5. Electrical
First Law of Thermodynamics Energy is never CREATED nor DESTROYED but is only CHANGED from one form to another, or TRANSFERRED from one place to another.
Second Law of Thermodynamics When ENERGY is transformed or transferred, a part of the energy is LOST in the form of HEAT.
How organisms obtain energy ECOSYSTEMS are powered by energy from the SUN Energy only enters living things at the PRODUCER level. As energy is passed along the FOOD chain, much of it is lost as HEAT.
How organisms obtain energy Energy flows ONE way through the food chain, from PRODUCERS through CONSUMERS. Each level of the food chain has LESS available energy in it.
Different organisms get energy in different ways Autotroph Organisms that can make their own food (green plants) Heterotrophs Organisms that cannot make their own food and have to feed on autotrophs or other heterotrophs (bear)
Producers Green Plants They capture light energy from the sun and convert it into food energy.
Consumers are Animals that depend upon green plants and other animals for food.
Types of Consumers Primary Consumer (Herbivores) – eat PLANTS to get energy Secondary Consumers (Carnivores, omnivores) – eat ANIMALS to get energy Tertiary Consumers (Scavengers, Humans) – eat ANIMALS to get energy
Decomposers Break down and DECOMPOSE DEAD ORGANISMS getting energy and releasing nutrients back into the environment.
You Are What You Eat Food Chains A simple LINEAR drawing showing which organisms feed upon which others
You Are What You Eat Food Web A NUMBER OF INTER- CONNECTING FOOD CHAINS