Presentation on theme: "Why Europeans Went Exploring Ch 1. Crusades Crusades-began in France (1095), when Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont exhorted Christendom to war."— Presentation transcript:
Crusades Crusades-began in France (1095), when Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont exhorted Christendom to war Religious motives dominated at first, but worldly considerations were never absent Constantinople in shreds
The Renaissance (1300-1600) Near the end of the middle ages, Christians of western Europe launched the crusades to take Jerusalem back from the Muslims (Islam). Thousands of europeans traveled to the holy land only to find they had much to learn from the east. (exchange of knowledge)
The Renaissance (cont.) Commerce grew Minds were opened as scholars translated books of poetry, adventures, and science from Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, and Persian This leads to a great revival of ancient architecture, learning, painting. (Leonardo de Vinci and Michelangelo)
The Renaissance (cont.) Books-previously all copied by hand (long books took 6 months) In 1456 Johann Gutenberg invented the movable type, and printed the bible the same year. This opened a new world for books and the age of learning had begun Astronomy was born: Copernicus showed that the earth revolved around the sun
The Rise of Nation States Age of nationalism was about to begin People began to take pride in their nationality. They were more adventurous and went out exploring to plant their flag abroad This contributes to age of discovery & learning.
The lure of the East In 1271 the Venetian merchants Maffeo, Nicolo Polo, and his son Marco, traveled to China. 17 years later they returned with gold, silks, and jewels. 2 centuries later when Marco Polo’s book was printed (read by Columbus) Monarchs began to think of a sea route to the east.
The Techniques of Discovery Prince Henry “The Navigator” (1394-1460) Set up a school for explorers at Cape St. Vincent on the Southwestern tip of Portugal He pushed voyages of discovery along the coast of Africa, although this was the long way Portuguese designed new kind of sailing ship called “Caravel” 1488 Barthalomeu Diaz sails around the southern tip of Africa and the eastern sea route to the East is now open