Presentation on theme: "What is attachment theory and of what consequence is it to future social development? Freud-Cupboard Theory Harlow’s Monkeys Bowlby Ainsworth’s Strange."— Presentation transcript:
What is attachment theory and of what consequence is it to future social development? Freud-Cupboard Theory Harlow’s Monkeys Bowlby Ainsworth’s Strange Situation Adult Attachment Types Current Relationship Interview Causation
Freud’s Cupboard Theory Infant attachment and future relationships Attachment based on desire for food Harlow’s Monkeys Terry cloth “mother” vs. wire mother with bottle Attachment based on security or access to food John Bowlby (1907-1990) Attachment as an evolved mechanism to keep infants close to their caregiver
Attachment Enduring tie to caregiver Desire for proximity Feeling of secure when caregiver is around Distress when separated Separation Anxiety When it emerges When it peaks Consistency across cultures?
Ainsworth’s Strange Situation: (how children react when reunited with mom) 1.The observer shows the experimental room to the mother and baby, then leaves the room. 2.The baby is allowed to explore the playroom for 3 min; the mother watches but does not participate. 3.A stranger enters the room and remains silent for 1 min., then talks to the baby for a minute, and then approaches the baby. The mother leaves unobtrusively. 4.The stranger does not play with the baby but attempts to comfort it if necessary. 5.After 3 min, the mother returns, greets and consoles the baby. 6.When the baby has returned to play, the mother leaves again, this time saying “bye-bye” as she leaves. 7.The stranger attempts to calm and play with the baby. 8.After 3 min, the mother returns and the stranger leaves.
Attachment Types Secure -show some distress when mom leaves, welcome her return and seek closeness Anxious/Resistant (ambivalent) -very upset when mom leaves, appear angry and reject mom when she returns despite indicating that they want to be close to her Anxious/Avoidant -unfazed by mom ’ s departure, ignore mom when she returns Disorganized -behave in contradictory ways, approach mom while gazing away, less predictable
Cross-cultural forms of attachment Form of attachment most common worldwide Attachment in the Kibbutz (collective child-rearing) Attachment in Japan Attachment in Germany
Bowlby’s internal working model Internal working model of relationships and expectations for future close relationships Effect of responsive and sensitive parents: provide a safe base
Stability of Attachment Secure children: high self-esteem, socially competent, popular Avoidant children: insecure, detached, difficulty describing feelings at age 6 Disorganized-impulsive, aggressive at age 6 Evidence for changeability of type