Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Propaganda Day 3.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Propaganda Day 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Propaganda Day 3

2 Bellwork Get out your Google Document we created last class period and add any necessary finishing touches to your work. Be sure that you have examples for EACH of the 4 types of propaganda/logical fallacies that we have studied so far: Bandwagon Card Stacking Glittering Generalities False Dilemma

3 Bellwork Open your Google Drive and create a new document called “Ad Examples.” You will use this to collect web links for videos and to cut and paste print ad examples. Be sure that you have examples for EACH of the 4 types of propaganda/logical fallacies that we have studied so far: Bandwagon Card Stacking Glittering Generalities False Dilemma

4 The Lesser of Two Evils Back to Contents

5 Part 6: The Lesser of Two Evils
While most false dilemmas offer a “good” and a “bad” alternative, the lesser of two evils technique is a specific type of false dilemma that offers two “bad” alternatives. This technique is often used when the propagandist is trying to convince people to adopt a perspective they will be hesitant to accept. Back to Contents

6 Part 6: The Lesser of Two Evils
In order to make the choice more appealing, an even worse alternative is presented as the only other option. It is argued that an imperfect option is, at any rate, better than the horrendous alternative. You don’t want to drive a fuel-efficient automobile? Try living under a terrorist regime! Back to Contents

7 Part 6: The Lesser of Two Evils
In nations like the United States, which has a de facto two-party political system, the lesser-of-two-evils argument is often used as a selling point for politicians. A candidate who is unpopular within his or her party may suddenly appear more attractive when pitted against a member of the opposing party. Senator Williams may have lied under oath, but at least he never embezzled money from his campaign, as his opponent did. Back to Contents

8 Part 6: The Lesser of Two Evils
In presidential elections, this tactic is frequently used to lure people away from third-party candidates; Democrats and Republicans point out that voting for the lesser of two evils is better than simply “wasting” a vote on someone who will never win. In the 2000 United States presidential election, for example, the Democratic Party tried to use this technique with their “Nader = Bush” bumper sticker. The message was that a vote for the Green Party (Nader) would be the equivalent of a vote for the Republican (Bush)—whom, it was presumed, Green Party voters would not wish to support at all. Back to Contents

9 Part 6: The Lesser of Two Evils
The lesser of two evils technique is most effective when one of the possible choices is truly awful, as in this poster, which pits frugality against fascism. Back to Contents

10 Part 6: The Lesser of Two Evils
While there are many flaws in the lesser-of-two-evils approach, the main problem is that, like the false dilemma, it usually ignores many alternative possibilities. Often, adopting a lesser-of-two-evils stance discourages innovative thinking by needlessly reducing the possible options. Back to Contents

11 Part 6: The Lesser of Two Evils
It is always best to be suspicious of any message that purports to show you the only two options available. When you’re faced with such a choice, consider each option on its own merits, and keep in mind that there are probably other, undisclosed alternatives. Back to Contents

12 Discussion Topics Discussion Topics
1. How is the lesser-of-two-evils technique similar to the false dilemma approach? What sets these techniques apart from one another? Like the lesser-of-two-evils approach, the false dilemma reduces a complex situation to a limited number of possibilities. Unlike the former technique, however, propaganda that uses the lesser-of-two-evils tactic offers two unpleasant alternatives. Back to Contents

13 Discussion Topics 2. What are the keys to identifying the lesser-of-two-evils fallacy? In the lesser-of-two-evils fallacy, a limited number of possibilities are presented (usually two). This propaganda technique also encourages you to make a decision based on the fear of one outcome, rather than the merits of the other. Back to Contents

14 Discussion Topics 3. The lesser-of-two-evils fallacy is often used to defend the status quo, as exemplified in the familiar idiom, “better the devil you know than the devil you don’t know.” Generate a list of real-life scenarios in which this technique of propaganda is used to preserve the status quo. Back to Contents

15 Discussion Topics 4. Create a caption to go with this image that would make the poster an example of lesser-of-two-evils propaganda. Back to Contents

16 Discussion Topics (Discussion Topic #4 continued)
4. Create a caption to go with this image that would make the poster an example of lesser-of-two-evils propaganda. Back to Contents

17 Name-Calling Back to Contents

18 PIG! EGGHEAD! REDNECK! Name-Calling
Consider the words above, each of which is used as a derogatory term for a certain type of person. Do any of the words evoke an emotional response? Back to Contents

19 Name-Calling Name-calling is the use of negative words to disparage an enemy or an opposing view. Insulting words are used in place of logical arguments, appealing to emotions, rather than reason. In many ways, name-calling is the opposite of the glittering generalities technique, which uses positive words in a similar way. Back to Contents

20 Name-Calling Using the name-calling technique, a propagandist will attack the opposition on a personal level, often appealing to the audience’s preconceptions and prejudices rather than appealing to logic. John is just your average right-wing gun nut. Susan is one of the looniest commies on the left. Back to Contents

21 Name-Calling Direct name-calling is usually used if the target audience is already leaning in favor of the propagandist. For example, if a politician wanted to further discredit an already unpopular opponent, he or she might say: Clearly, my opponent’s bleeding-heart liberalism will not help to solve the current crisis. Back to Contents

22 Name-Calling In indirect name-calling, the propagandist takes a subtler approach, perhaps making sarcastic or tongue-in-cheek remarks about an opponent. Rather than directly calling the opponent a derogatory name, the propagandist may, instead, make the same negative suggestions in a more jovial, less confrontational manner. Back to Contents

23 Name-Calling An example of indirect name-calling:
Although we all have a great deal of respect for Senator Parker, I’m not certain we need to accept his views on marriage without careful scrutiny. After all, he is a confirmed bachelor. In this instance, rather than openly attacking his or her opponent, the propagandist couches critical remarks with polite language and a claim of “respect.” Nevertheless, calling the man a “confirmed bachelor” to invalidate his views on marriage is an example of a subtle approach to name-calling. Back to Contents

24 Name-Calling Name-calling is a popular technique in politics; in fact, two of the most famous political symbols in the United States had their origins in name-calling cartoons. In the 1828 presidential campaign, opponents of the Democratic-Republican Party candidate, Andrew Jackson, called him a “jackass.” Jackson decided to embrace this comment, which was intended as an insult, and view the donkey as a symbol of determination. Back to Contents

25 Name-Calling From there, the strong-willed jackass eventually came to be associated with the Democratic Party in general, especially after political cartoonist Thomas Nast used the image in newspaper cartoons in the late nineteenth century. Back to Contents

26 Name-Calling Similarly, Nast popularized the symbol of the Republican elephant. In a cartoon that appeared in Harper’s Weekly, in 1874, Nast drew a donkey (representing the Democratic Party) clothed in a lion’s skin, scaring away all the animals in the jungle. One of those animals, the elephant, was labeled “The Republican Vote.” Back to Contents

27 Name-Calling While Nast’s intention was probably to suggest that Republicans were slow, plodding, and not open to innovation or change, the Republican Party quickly adopted the elephant as a symbol of strength and dignity. Back to Contents

28 Name-Calling Any time a label is attached to a person in order to discredit that person’s argument, name-calling is being employed. It is always best to disregard insulting language and evaluate an individual or an argument on the basis of facts. Back to Contents

29 Discussion Topics Discussion Topics
1. What are some examples of name-calling you have seen in advertising, politics, or popular culture? Back to Contents

30 Discussion Topics 2. In indirect name-calling, words that are not necessarily negative, in and of themselves, are used to subtly disparage an opponent. List some examples of words that can be used in this way, and describe a possible context in which they would be considered name-calling. Back to Contents

31 Discussion Topics 3. What makes name-calling a logical fallacy?
Name-calling is a logical fallacy because it is used to attack not the argument, but the individual delivering it. Back to Contents

32 Discussion Topics 4. Identify the audience and purpose for this poster, and discuss whether this is an example of name-calling propaganda. Note: President Theodore Roosevelt coined the term “muckrakers” to describe journalists and politicians who were known for exposing social injustices. Back to Contents

33 Discussion Topics 4. Identify the audience and purpose for this poster, and discuss whether this is an example of name-calling propaganda. Note: President Theodore Roosevelt coined the term “muckrakers” to describe journalists and politicians who were known for exposing social injustices. Aimed at the American public, this editorial cartoon is intended to poke fun at Teddy Roosevelt and the “muckraking” senators with whom he sometimes clashed. By referring to these senators as a “muck heap,” the cartoonist plays on the term “muckrakers.” This is a dismissive treatment of the senators, but the degree to which this qualifies as an instance of name-calling propaganda is open to debate. Back to Contents

34 Individual Activity Think about the current political parties and recent issues. List out two unfavorable comments each party typically makes about the other. Be ready to share in 3 minutes.

35 Part 8: Pinpointing the Enemy
Back to Contents

36 Part 8: Pinpointing the Enemy
Propagandists often oversimplify complex problems by pointing out a single cause or a single enemy who can be blamed. For everything from unemployment to natural disasters, identifying a supposed source of the problem can help the propagandist achieve his or her agenda. Back to Contents

37 Part 8: Pinpointing the Enemy
Problems rarely stem from a single cause, but propagandists often benefit from oversimplifying situations. People tend to like clear-cut explanations, and politicians take advantage of this fact by pointing to a single enemy and placing all the blame at his or her feet. Back to Contents

38 Part 8: Pinpointing the Enemy
This World War II poster identifies “the enemy” of the United States, giving a human face to the threat of facism. Back to Contents

39 Part 8: Pinpointing the Enemy
When the enemy in question is blamed for problems that are actually someone else’s fault, this is a particular category of pinpointing the enemy known as scapegoating. Blaming a scapegoat alleviates the guilt of those who are truly at fault, while providing a convenient explanation for the problem at hand. Back to Contents

40 Part 8: Pinpointing the Enemy
This 1854 painting by William Holman Hunt, “The Scapegoat,” illustrates the origins of the term—the ancient Hebrew tradition of driving a goat into the wilderness on Yom Kippur to carry away the people’s sins. Back to Contents

41 Part 8: Pinpointing the Enemy
Pinpointing the enemy works particularly well when the targeted group is already thought of as “the other.” An example of this phenomenon is the Nazi portrayal of the Jewish people as the source of economic problems in Germany. People who are easy to recognize by appearance or culture make perfect scapegoats; if they are easy to identify, they are easy to blame. Back to Contents

42 Part 8: Pinpointing the Enemy
It’s important to remember that cruel dictators are not the only propagandists who make use of this technique. For example, social and environmental activists often use the same technique to garner support for their causes. The big oil companies have stifled all talk of alternative energy sources for decades. Back to Contents

43 Part 8: Pinpointing the Enemy
Listening to the full story, in all its detail, can be overwhelming, leading people to become apathetic. Effective propaganda, therefore, will often define a complicated issue as having a single cause—and, often, a single enemy. Example: Uncontrolled fishing by greedy commercial fishers has reduced the numbers of some fish to one-tenth of their original population. Back to Contents

44 Part 8: Pinpointing the Enemy
When presented in their entirety, our obstacles may seem insurmountable. Often, all we really want to know is, “Who’s to blame?” Of course, the propagandist is only too willing to provide an answer to this question. McDougal’s Burgers are responsible for the obesity epidemic in America. Back to Contents

45 Part 8: Pinpointing the Enemy
Frequently, a single company will also be targeted, while others that may have similar or even worse practices go untouched. Companies such as Wal-Mart and Starbucks have served as scapegoats for many economic problems over the years. Megamart is responsible for the destruction of small businesses throughout the country. Back to Contents

46 Part 8: Pinpointing the Enemy
Most issues that confront us are complex, from the environment to the economy to international relations. Nevertheless, people are often eager to accept a simple answer to a complicated question. The technique of pinpointing an enemy can make overwhelming problems seem quite simple and easy to solve. Remember that the propagandist’s message is always based on faulty logic. Arguments that pinpoint a single enemy are often faulty because “the enemy” they identify is really only part of the problem. Back to Contents

47 Discussion Topics Discussion Topics
1. How is pinpointing the enemy similar to name-calling? How are the two techniques different? Both techniques are frequently used to attack an individual. However, pinpointing the enemy is often used to assign blame, while name-calling is usually used to discredit an opponent. Back to Contents

48 Discussion Topics 2. Identify an instance of pinpointing the enemy that you have witnessed in the media. What companies, groups, or individuals have been blamed for many of the world’s problems? Back to Contents

49 Discussion Topics 3. How is pinpointing the enemy related to “scapegoating,” and the ancient Hebrew practice of driving a goat into the wilderness to take away the people’s sins? Scapegoating is a particular kind of pinpointing, in which the scapegoat is blamed for the propagandist’s own failings. As in the Hebrew tradition, the scapegoat is forced to bear the moral failures of others. Back to Contents

50 Discussion Topics 4. Identify the audience and purpose for this poster, and discuss whether this is an example of pinpointing the enemy. Note: The term “Hun” was used to refer to the Germans during World War I. Back to Contents

51 Discussion Topics 4. Identify the audience and purpose for this poster, and discuss whether this is an example of pinpointing the enemy. Note: The term “Hun” was used to refer to the Germans during World War I. Aimed at an American audience during World War I, this cartoon is meant to disparage the German government and the practice of producing and drinking alcohol. This can be considered an example of name-calling propaganda because of the use of the term “Hun” and because it depicts the German public as wasteful, poor, alcohol-loving criminals, rather than arguing against the nation’s government. Back to Contents

52 Part 9: Plain Folk Back to Contents

53 Part 9: Plain Folk People tend to distrust those they perceive as outsiders, and the plain-folk technique takes advantage of this instinct. In this approach, the propagandist makes him or herself appear more like an “insider” in order to gain the public’s confidence. Back to Contents

54 Part 9: Plain Folk In this poster from George McGovern’s 1972 presidential campaign, the senator’s face blends in among the smiles of “plain folk” of various ages, ethnicities, and professions. Back to Contents

55 Part 9: Plain Folk The plain-folk technique can perhaps be seen most strikingly in political candidates. Politicians often compete to be seen as more “normal” than their opponents. Politicians often attempt to appear more like the average citizen by manipulating the way they dress or the way they speak. Back to Contents

56 Part 9: Plain Folk Common techniques include:
using colloquial phrases or dialects expressing emotion or sentimentality using words such as “home,” “children,” or “dinner table” that evoke the idea of the average family taking on an appearance of shyness, or a seeming reluctance to take the spotlight or a position of leadership Back to Contents

57 Part 9: Plain Folk Examples from real life:
1. Former President Bill Clinton ate at McDonald’s, played the saxophone on a late-night talk show, and admitted he enjoyed “trashy spy novels.” 2. Former President Ronald Reagan was often photographed chopping wood. 3. Former President James Carter insisted on being sworn into office as “Jimmy.” Using the same logic, candidates will often attack the credibility of their opponents by labeling them “Washington insiders” or “elitists.” Back to Contents

58 Discussion Topics Discussion Topics
1. What are some examples of plain-folk propaganda that you have seen in advertising? What product lines have used this technique, and how? Back to Contents

59 Discussion Topics 2. What kinds of advertisements and/or political campaigns would not benefit from using the plain-folk approach? Under what circumstances would this technique be counterproductive? Products or politicians who appeal to an elite audience would not benefit from using the plain-folks technique. Likewise, an individual or product that could not make a realistic claim to being ordinary and common should not use this approach. Back to Contents

60 Discussion Topics 3. Read the following quote. Then, describe one situation in which this quote would constitute plain-folk propaganda and another scenario in which it would not. I grew up on a farm in rural Mississippi, so I know the meaning of struggle. I learned the value of hard work and determination at an early age, and it’s a lesson I won’t soon forget. This quote would constitute plain-folk propaganda if delivered by a public figure, such as a politician, in an attempt at self-promotion. However, if spoken by a grandfather to his grandchildren, for example, this would not be an instance of propaganda. Back to Contents

61 Discussion Topics Individual Activity Imagine that you are running for a student council office, and create a short speech slogan in which you promote yourself using plain-folk propaganda. Back to Contents

62 QUICKWRITE Fold the blank paper on your desk into quarters (in half one way and then the other). Look at mine if you don’t understand. Use each corner to ILLUSTRATE/GIVE EXAMPLES OF the five types of propaganda we have studied so far (one of them will go on the back): Bandwagon - Card Stacking Glittering Generalities - Name Calling False Dilemma

63 Propaganda Is persuasive Has a large target audience
Uses faulty reasoning Promotes a specific group’s agenda/ideas

64 Bandwagon “Everyone else is doing it so you should too.”
Peer pressure feeling Uses some large number to convince you everyone else likes something

65 Glittering Generalities
Sounds really good, but is hard to define. Freedom, safety, comfort, cheap (free) Insurance ads and fast food

66 False Dilemma Reduces your options to very few, usually only two.
The only one that looks good is the one they are trying to force you to choose. Black and white with no grey area in between. “Either you are ___, or you are ___.”

67 Card Stacking Uses several small things to pile up against the competition or for themselves. Before & After pictures Fine print holds unfavorable details Car ads, beauty and weight loss products, paper towels

68 Name Calling Attacks the person rather than the issue
Mudslinging, hurtful, direct or indirect Primarily political “Our brand vs. the off-brand”

Download ppt "Propaganda Day 3."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google