Presentation on theme: "10.2 Lecture – Philosophers & Documents. I. Philosophers A. Enlightenment 1. Applied the methods and questions of the Scientific Revolution of the 17."— Presentation transcript:
I. Philosophers A. Enlightenment 1. Applied the methods and questions of the Scientific Revolution of the 17 th century. 2. Challenge to long-established religious and political institutions. B. John Locke (1632-1704) 1. Governments were created to protect life, liberty, and property. a. Protect the fundamental rights of the people. 1. Natural Rights John Locke, photo from web
2. Best government had limited power and accepted by all citizens. a. Locke rejected an absolute monarchy 3. The people had a right to rebel when a monarchy violated the natural rights. a. Human’s individual rights were the foundation of civil government. b. People were reasonable and moral. 4. His ideas influenced Modern Democracies.
C. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) 1. Human nature good but corrupted by evils of society especially the unequal distribution of property. 2. Minimal limitation on the people and the ones present should only be enforced by government. 3. Advocate of democracy 4. Social Contract a. The will of the people was sacred and the legitimacy of the Monarch depends on the consent of the people. 5. Vote and create a government for the community as a whole a. Good of the community, not the individual b. Individual is subordinate to the community. Rousseau, photo from web
D. Montesquieu 1. Liberty is a Natural Right 2. Liberty is protected by the separation of powers or checks and balances. a. Government is separated into three branches. 1. Legislative – makes laws 2. Executive – enforce laws 3. Judicial – Interpret laws 3. Wanted a just and virtuous government system 4. Women would make good rulers, gentle and benefit the people. 5. Many modern day countries who are democratic use the separation of powers. a. Example – The United States. Montesquieu, photo from web.
E. Voltaire 1. 18 th century French Historian 2. Argued for tolerance, freedom of religion, and free speech. 3. Did not care for the French Government and Christianity. F. Hobbes 1. Humans were by nature selfish and ambitious. 2. Absolute monarchy would control human behavior. 3. Social Contract was created a. People submitted to an authoritarian ruler to prevent disorder. b. Important theory to the development of democracy.
G. Simon Bolivar 1. Desired independence from Spain 2. Led revolution in homeland of Venezuela a. Adapted his objectives and policies to attract allies and build coalitions. b. Eliminated slavery to gain more people for his cause. c. Help came from San Martin, another general that desired independence in South America. 3. Bolivar planned to unite all of South America. a. Upper area of Peru was renamed Bolivia in his honor.
4. Call the “Liberator.” 5. Admired the American and French Revolution. a. Used both revolutions in his efforts to gain independence for his own country. Simon Bolivar, photo from web.
II. Independence Documents A. Magna Carta – English Bill of Rights (1689) 1. King John of England forced by nobles to sign the document. a. King had oppressive taxes and abuses and power. 2. Protection a. No arbitrary arrest, imprisonment until represented through the legal system. 1. “Due Process of Law.” b. No raising of the taxes unless consulting the council of Lords and the church. 3. Significance a. Brought rights to the citizens. b. Monarchy must obey the law.
B. English Bill of Rights 1. Ensured superiority of Parliament over monarchy. 2. House of Commons controlled the economy. 3. Roman Catholics cannot sit on the throne. 4. No cruel and unjust punishment. 5. Established habeas corpus a. No person could be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime.
C. American Declaration of Independence 1. Reflects the ideas of John Locke 2. People have the right to alter or to abolish unjust governments (the right to revolt). 3. Popular Sovereignty a. All government power comes from the people. 4. Pledge – “our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.”
D. U.S. Bill of Rights 1. First 10 Amendments to the Constitution. 2. People have basic rights the government must provide and protect. 3. Freedom of religion, speech, press, trial by jury, and private property.
F. French Declaration of Independence 1. All men born and remain free and equal in rights. 2. Natural Rights. 3. Male citizens equal before the law and right to hold a public office. 4. Freedom of religion. 5. Taxes according to pay a. Liberty, equality, fraternity.