Presentation on theme: "The President and Foreign Policy.. Foreign Policy may be composed of many elements: isolationismpolice action neutralitywar foreign aid diplomacy economic."— Presentation transcript:
Foreign Policy may be composed of many elements: isolationismpolice action neutralitywar foreign aid diplomacy economic sanctions political pressure blockade military intervention covert action
In 1799, Representative Marshall said on the floor of Congress: “The president is the sole tool of the nation in its external relations, and its sole representative with foreign nations. “ Marshall would later be Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and the Court has upheld this attitude.
Constitutional powers of president in foreign policy: *appoint ambassadors (Senate ratifies) *serve as commander-in-chief *negotiate treaties (2/3 Senate vote ratifies) *Presidents often use implied powers
The President has much more influence in foreign policy then in domestic policy. The public tends to support the President in a foreign policy crisis, especially if it is short term. If the crisis continues for a long period of time, the public becomes skeptical and may lose interest.
In 1947, the National Security Council (NSC) was created to assist the president in coordinating foreign & defense policy. Members: President Vice President Secretary of State National Security Advisor Secretary of Defense Advisor to council include CIA Director & Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff
There are several factors that determine the President’s decisions in foreign policy:
External Decision Makers: Example: President Carter had to take into consideration the American hostages that were held in captivity by Iran. He could not make a decision about foreign policy without having to think about the hostages.