Presentation on theme: "15.1 Life in the Earth System KEY CONCEPT The biosphere is one of Earth’s four interconnected systems."— Presentation transcript:
15.1 Life in the Earth System KEY CONCEPT The biosphere is one of Earth’s four interconnected systems.
15.1 Life in the Earth System Objectives Describe the interactions of the biosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere Describe the interactions of biotic and abiotic factors in the biosphere
15.1 Life in the Earth System The biosphere is the portion of Earth that is inhabited by life. The biosphere includes all ecosystems. –one of Earth’s systems –includes the biota, all the living things in the biosphere
15.1 Life in the Earth System There are three other Earth systems. –hydrosphere—water, ice, and water vapor –atmosphere—air blanketing Earth’s solid and liquid surface –geosphere—geologic features above and below Earth’s surface
15.1 Life in the Earth System Biotic and abiotic factors interact in the biosphere. All four Earth systems are interconnected. The Gaia hypothesis considers Earth as a kind of living organism. –Earth systems interact to yield a biosphere capable of supporting life. –It was developed by James Lovelock and Lynn Margulis.
15.1 Life in the Earth System What is the relationship between the biota and the biosphere? The biosphere contains the biota- all living things on earth, as well as portions of the hydrosphere and, atmosphere, and geosphere
15.1 Life in the Earth System How does the Gaia hypothesis explain the interaction explain the interaction between biotic and abiotic factors in the biosphere According to the Gaia hypothesis, Earth itself is an analogous to a living organism. The interactions between the atmosphere, geosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere are like the interactions of an organisms vital organs
15.1 Life in the Earth System How might a rise in global temperatures affect the biosphere? A rise in global temperatures might affect the DISTRIBUTION of living things in the biosphere. Some species might increase in # Some species could decrease or go extinct
15.1 Life in the Earth System Explain how feedback loops, such as those described by the Gaia hypothesis might appluy to predator prey relationships When a prey population increases in size, the predator population has more food to eat. As a result, the predator population increases in size. When the predator becomes so plentiful that the prey population decreases, the predators have less food to eat. As a result, the predator population decreases in size.
15.1 Life in the Earth System KEY CONCEPT Climate is a key abiotic factor that affects the biosphere.
15.1 Life in the Earth System Objectives Differentiate between weather, climate, and microclimates Identify factors that determine Earths climate zones
15.1 Life in the Earth System Climate is the prevailing weather of a region. Climate is the long-term pattern of weather conditions. –average temperature –precipitation –relative humidity Key factors shape an area’s climate. –temperature –sunlight –water –wind
15.1 Life in the Earth System A microclimate is the climate of a small specific place within a larger area.
15.1 Life in the Earth System Earth has three main climate zones. The three main zones are the polar, tropical, and temperate climates. –polar climate: the far northern and southern regions of Earth –tropical zone: surrounds the equator –temperate zone: the wide area in between the polar and tropical zones
15.1 Life in the Earth System The angle of the Sun’s rays help determine an area’s climate. temperate polar tropical temperate polar 90 N
15.1 Life in the Earth System Earth’s tilt on its axis plays a role in seasonal change. Solar heating causes movements in both water and air. –wind –ocean currents Earth’s rotation also has effects on the winds and currents
15.1 Life in the Earth System Landmasses shape inland climates. –larger changes in temperatures –less precipitation Oceans shape coastal climates. –smaller changes in temperatures –higher humidity –more precipitation
15.1 Life in the Earth System Mountains have an effect on climate. western slopeeastern slope –Precipitation occurs on the side of the mountain facing the wind. –On the downwind side, drier and cooler air produce a rain shadow. –A rain shadow is an area of decreased precipitation.
15.1 Life in the Earth System Many organisms survive in a specific climate due to their adaptations.
15.1 Life in the Earth System What is the difference between climate and weather Weather is the day-to-day temperature, precipitation, and wind conditions in a region Climate is the long term pattern of weather
15.1 Life in the Earth System What are the 3 different climate zones, and where are they located? The polar climate zones are found at the North and South poles The tropical climate is located at the equator The temperate climate is found between the polar and tropical climate zones
15.1 Life in the Earth System Would areas along the shores of the Great Lakes have warmer summers and colder winters than other inland areas? Explain. NO, because of the buffering affects of the water, shoreline areas have moderate seasonal temperature changes compared to inland areas
15.1 Life in the Earth System Would you expect an area with several microclimates to have more or fewer ecological niches? Explain. An area with several microclimates would have more ecological niches, allowing a wider variety of organisms to find suitable habitats.
15.1 Life in the Earth System KEY CONCEPT Marine ecosystems are global.
15.1 Life in the Earth System Objectives Identify the 4 major ocean zones and organisms unique to each zone Describe the unique habitats of coastal waters
15.1 Life in the Earth System –neritic zone—from intertidal zone to continental shelf –bathyal zone— from neritic zone to base of continental shelf –abyssal zone –lies below 2000 m The ocean can be divided into zones. Ocean zones can be determined by their distance from shoreline and water depths. –intertidal zone—between low and high tide intertidal zone neritic zone bathmat zone abyssal zone
15.1 Life in the Earth System The neritic zone harbors more biomass than any other zone. Plankton make up most of the biomass. –zooplankton –phytoplankton
15.1 Life in the Earth System Coastal waters contain unique habitats. Coral reefs are found in warm waters. –tropical climate zone –great amount of biomass
15.1 Life in the Earth System Kelp forests are found in cold, nutrient-rich waters. –large communities of seaweed –great amount of biomass
15.1 Life in the Earth System What criteria do scientists use to divide the ocean into different zones? Open sea & ocean floor Presence of light Distance from shoreline Water depth
15.1 Life in the Earth System What conditions account for the development of highly diverse habitats in coastal waters? Sunlight Upwelling of nutrients Temperature variations Currents Wind Waves Tides
15.1 Life in the Earth System A red tide occurs when a bloom of plankton causes a reddish discoloration of coastal ocean waters. What might cause such an increase in plankton populations? Increased amounts of nutrients in the water Temperatures that are conducive to that type of species