Battle of Frontiers- 1914 Early German victory versus Great Britain and France Battle of Tannenberg- 1914 Russians defeated by German Army Battle of Marne- 1914 British and French counterattack pushes German troops back, Germans dig trenches Italian Front- 1915 Italy enters war against Austria- Hungary Battle of Verdun- 1916 Germany versus France- over 400,000 casualties Battle of Somme- 1916 Britain versus Germany- 60,000 British casualties on first day. Battle of Ypres- 1917 British versus Germany near Belgium front lines did not change Gallipoli- Allies versus Ottoman Empire 200,000 casualties Armenian Massacre- Ottoman Empire practices genocide against Christian Armenians
Quiz Triple Alliance Triple Entente Central Powers Allied Powers Gavrilo Princip Archduke Franz Ferdinand Why did an assassination lead the major European nations into war? What was the impact of new types of warfare and new technologies on World War I?
Russia and World War I What was the significance of the Russian Revolution on World War I and on World History?
What was Russia’s experience in World War I? Bolsheviks vs. Nicholas II 6 Million Soldiers Insufficient Factories Transportation Issues Outdated Military Poor Leadership Tremendous Costs Czar takes control Czarina Alexandra and Grigory Rasputin
What were the main events of the Russian Revolution? March Revolution 1917- Nicolas II abdicates Aleksandr Kerensky leads provisional government Bolshevik Revolution- November 1917 called October Revolution from the Old Russian calendar Vladimir Lenin in control –No Private Property- land given to peasants –Government owned factories given to the workers
What were the main events that took place after the Russian Revolution? Leon Trotsky signs treaty ending Russia’s participation in WWI Red Army vs White Army/Civil War USSR formed in 1922, Lenin dies in 1924
The War Ends What led to the end of World War I and how was peace achieved?
Why did the United States enter the war? Woodrow Wilson- “He kept us out of war” Election of 1916 Unrestricted Submarine Warfare U-Boats Lusitania Zimmerman Note
What events led to the end of the fighting? New German Offensive- March 1918 Second Battle of the Marne Armistice
What issues made the peace process difficult? 14 Points Big Four –Woodrow Wilson –Georges Clemenceau –Vittorio Orlando –David Lloyd George Treaty of Versailles –War Guilt Clause –Reparations –Military Limits –League of Nations Mandates Balfour Declaration
What were the costs of war? 9 Million soldiers 13 Million Citizens Flu epidemic- 50 Million people $332 Billion estimated costs Austria-Hungary and ottoman Empire dissolved Russian Monarchy overturned New Countries in Europe and Middle East Colonies in Africa and Asia
Quiz What was the significance of the Russian Revolution on World War I and on World History? What led to the end of World War I and how was peace achieved? Bolsheviks Grigory Rasputin Vladimir Lenin Woodrow Wilson U-Boats Zimmerman Note 14 Points Treaty of Versailles Balfour Declaration