4 Japan Japan lacked natural resources for industry 1929 – The Great Depression devastated Japan.Economic disaster fed the discontent of military officials.Ultranationalists condemned politicians for stopping overseas expansion.Nationalists demanded renewed expansion to gain raw materials.
5 Japan’s Expanding Empire to 1934 5Hideki Tojo: JapanesePrime MinisterBelieved in the racial superiority of the Japanese people.ultra-nationalistic & militaristic.Wanted to expand the Japanese empire throughout the Pacific Rim.Believed Japan was invincible.
6 By 1937 Civilian government was forced to accept military domination. 5By 1937 Civilian government was forced to accept military domination.To please the ultranationalists, it:cracked down on socialistsended most democratic freedomsrevived ancient warrior valuesbuilt a cult around the emperorspread nationalist message in schoolsrenewed efforts at expansion1931, Japan invaded Manchuria, adding it to the growing Japanese empire.1937, Japanese troops invaded eastern ChinaAfter the city of Nanking surrendered, the Japanese killed hundreds of thousands of soldiers and civilians in what came to be known as the “Rape of Nanking.”Cult: an extreme or excessive admiration for a person
7 4The Rape of NankingReferring to dictators, Mr. Churchill said : “You see these Dictators on their pedestals, surrounded by the bayonets of their soldiers and the truncheons of their police on all sides. They are guarded by masses of armed men, cannons, airplanes and fortifications- they boast and vaunt themselves before the world. Yet in their hearts there is an unspoken fear. They are afraid of words and thoughts-the words spoken abroad and the thoughts stirring at home.”The Dictator, in Churchill’s opinion, was all strong without and all weak within. Dictatorship, he concluded, was a passing phase that could not long endure if it was brought into contact with the healthy world outside. “The China Weekly Review” Life’s End for Japanese and Chinese Alike October 22, 1938
8 Italy 1922 - Fascists imposed totalitarian rule promoted economic modernization,Fascists advocated complete state authorityItaly fared better than most western nations during the Depressionaggressive foreign policy, establishing colonies in East Africa
9 Benito Mussolini (Italy) Preached a government called Fascism – includes intense patriotism & nationalismVery much linked to racism and cultural superiorityWanted to restore the glory of Rome
10 Benito MussoliniEntered Parliament after having been defeated in 1919Became premier of ItalyMussolini declared Italy a fascist dictatorship and took control over society, politics, and economics, as well as the military.
11 Italy Invades Ethiopia 1935 – Italy invaded Ethiopia in AfricaMussolini wanted new areas to expand his empire in Africa
12 GermanyThe Treaty of Versailles left Germany deeply in debt and caused serious government instability in the 1920s.Bad economic times made it easy for the Nazi party to gain power.
13 Adolf HitlerHitler attempted to take control of a struggling Germany through the “Beer Hall Putsch.” He failed and was arrested. In jail he wrote “Mein Kampf” exposing his political ideology. He was considered harmless and was released in 1924.Defeated von Hindenburg in national election. Hitler was the Chancellor of Germany.Hitler declares himself the “Fuhrer of Germany taking dictatorial power.Back
15 Adolf Hitler A very charismatic speaker Brought Germany out of the Depression with a huge work program and militarization
16 Adolf Hitler Hitler believed in the military superiority of Germany. His fighting techniques, such as blitzkrieg, threatened to overthrow Europe in less than a year.
17 1935 – Nuremburg Laws 1938 – “Kristallnacht” German mobs destroy Jewish property 1939 – first major imprisonment and deportation of Jews to concentration camps
18 Germany Occupies Rhineland 1936 – Hitler moves troops into the Rhineland (German region near the French border)WWI treaty said no German troops allowed thereFrench Gov’t and League of Nations – TAKE NO ACTION
19 German - Italian Alliance Germany and Italy formed the Axis PowersNow – two dictators with stated goals of expansion are good friendsAxis Powers help Spain’s Fascist military overthrow its elected government (Spanish Civil War)Mussolini and Hitler
20 Germany Occupies Austria “Anschluss” 1938 – Hitler and the Germans invade Austria (most Austrians spoke German and welcomed becoming a part of Germany)But…Hitler and the Germans were expanding – and the WWI treaty told them not to…
21 The Sudetenland After taking Austria – Hitler wanted more His next desire is the Sudetenland in CzechoslovakiaThe Czechs didn’t want to give this area to Germany – nor did Great Britain, France & Russia
22 “Appeasement” at Munich The British step in to offer a peace and avoid warBritish Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain meets with Hitler in Munich, GermanyThey agree to give Hitler the SudetenlandHitler has to promise he is done seeking territoryAfter being given Sudetenland – Hitler takes the rest of Czechoslovakia
23 Reactions to MunichNeville Chamberlain, the British Prime Minister who came up with the agreement, said that he had achieved “peace in our time”Winston Churchill, the future Prime Minister, said: “Britain and France had to choose between war and shame. They chose shame. They will get war, too.”
24 – Germany reoccupies the Rhineland 1938 – Germany Annexes Austria – Britain/France Give Germany the Sudetenland – Germany occupies Czechoslovakia 1939 – Germany invades Poland