2 Study the example…This house was built in (“was built” is passive). Compare active and passive:Somebody built this house in (active)(object to subject)This house was built in (passive)
3 We use an ACTIVE VERB to say what the subject does: My grandfather was a builder. He built this house in 1930.It’s a big company. It employs two hundred people.We use a PASSIVE VERB to say what happens to the subject:This house is quite old. It was built in 1930.Two hundred people are employed by the company.
4 If we want to say who does or what causes the action, we use by…: When we use the passive, who or what causes the action is often unknown or unimportant:A lot of money was stolen in the robbery.Is this room cleaned every day?If we want to say who does or what causes the action, we use by…:This house was built by my grandfather.Two hundred people are employed by the company.
5 Somebody cleans this room every day This room is cleaned every day PASSIVE FORMSPresent simple (affirmative)Somebody cleans this room every dayThis room is cleaned every dayCareless driving causes many accidentsMany accidents are caused by careless driving
6 PASSIVE FORMS Present simple (negative) Somebody does not clean this room every dayThis room is not cleaned every dayPeople don’t use this road very oftenThis road is not used very often
7 PASSIVE FORMS Present simple (interrogative) Does anybody clean this room every day?Is this room cleaned every day?How do people learn languages?How are languages learnt?
8 Somebody cleaned this room yesterday This room was cleaned yesterday PASSIVE FORMSPast simple (affirmative)Somebody cleaned this room yesterdayThis room was cleaned yesterdayThey cancelled all flights because of fogAll flights were cancelled because of fog
9 She did not write a story A story was not written (by her) PASSIVE FORMSPast simple (negative)She did not write a storyA story was not written (by her)They didn’t invite Sally to the partySally was not invited to the party
10 PASSIVE FORMS Past simple (interrogative) Did Matt bring the ingredients?Were the ingredients brought (by Matt)?Did you wash the car before the trip?Was the car washed before the trip?
11 Somebody will clean the room later The room will be cleaned later PASSIVE FORMSFuture simple (affirmative)Somebody will clean the room laterThe room will be cleaned laterWe will sell all our booksAll our books will be sold
12 Somebody is cleaning the room The room is being cleaned PASSIVE FORMSPresent continuous (affirmative)Somebody is cleaning the roomThe room is being cleanedJohn is watering the plantsThe plants are being watered (by John)
13 Somebody was cleaning the room The room was being cleaned PASSIVE FORMSPast continuous (affirmative)Somebody was cleaning the roomThe room was being cleanedMy mother was baking a cakeA cake was being baked (by my mother)
14 PASSIVE FORMS Present perfect (affirmative): The room looks nice. Somebody has cleaned itThe room looks nice. It has been cleanedThey have invited John to the partyJohn has been invited to the party
15 PASSIVE FORMS Past perfect (affirmative): The room looked nice. Somebody had cleaned itThe room looked nice. It had been cleanedThey hadn’t told us the good newsWe hadn’t been told the news (by them)
16 They should clean this room! This room should be cleaned! PASSIVE FORMSModals:They should clean this room!This room should be cleaned!You could take some sweets!Some sweets could be taken!
17 PASSIVE FORMS Modal perfects: They should have cleaned this room! This room should have been cleaned!You should take coats for the kids!Coats should have been taken for the kids!
18 They have to clean this room! This room has to be cleaned! PASSIVE FORMS“Have to”:They have to clean this room!This room has to be cleaned!He has to wash that jumper!That jumper has to be washed!