2 When do we use passive voice? When we want to change the focus of the sentence: The Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo Da Vinci. (We are more interested in the painting than the artist in this sentence)When who or what causes the action is unknown or unimportant or obvious or 'people in general': He was arrested (obvious agent, the police).My bike has been stolen (unknown agent).
3 In factual or scientific writing: The chemical is placed in a test tube and the data entered into the computer.In formal writing instead of using someone/ people/ they (these can be used in speaking or informal writing): The brochure will be finished next month.
4 In order to put the new information at the end of the sentence to improve style: Three books are used regularly in the class. The books were written by Dr. Bell.When the subject is very long: I was surprised by how well the students did in the test.
5 How to make a passive:To make a passive sentence you need to start with object first and then use the be form of the verb (depending on the tense) and then add a past participle. If we want to say who or what performs the action, we use the preposition by: object + be + past participle + by
6 Example of Present Simple: Active: Tom cleans the house Example of Present Simple: Active: Tom cleans the house. Passive: The house is cleaned by Tom. Example of Past Simple: Active: Sam repaired the car. Passive: The car was repaired by Sam.
7 Example of Present Perfect: Active: Many tourists have visited that castle. Passive: That castle has been visited by many tourists. Example of Past Perfect Continuous: Active: Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant's fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris. Passive: The restaurant's fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris.
8 Example of Future Continuous (Will): Active: At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be washing the dishes. Passive: At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by John. Example of Future Continuous (Going to): Active: At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes. Passive: At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John.
9 Example with Modal Verb: Active: The gardener must water the flowers Example with Modal Verb: Active: The gardener must water the flowers. Passive: The flowers must be watered by the gardener.
10 Changes in the sentence: - object of the "active" sentence becomes subject in the "passive" sentence - subject of the "active" sentence becomes "object" in the "passive" sentence" (or is left out)
11 5 Examples: Active: Anne writes a letter. Passive: A letter is written by Anne.2. Active: Anne wrote a letter.Passive: A letter was written by Anne.
12 3. Active: Anne has written a letter 3. Active: Anne has written a letter. Passive: A letter has been written by Anne. 4. Active: Anne will write a letter. Passive: A letter will be written by Anne. 5. Active: Anne has to write a letter. Passive: A letter has to be written by Anne.