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ACIDS, BASES, & SALTS Chapter 17.

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Presentation on theme: "ACIDS, BASES, & SALTS Chapter 17."— Presentation transcript:

1 ACIDS, BASES, & SALTS Chapter 17

2 ACIDS ACID: An acid is a substance that produces Hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution. Properties of ACIDS They are electrolytes (conduct electricity) They are Corrosive They Taste Sour IMPORTANT – Never use taste to test for an acid*

3 BASES Bases: A base is a substance that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in a solution. Properties of Bases: They are electrolytes They are corrosive (caustic) They feel slippery They have a bitter taste IMPORTANT – taste should never be used to test for a base*

4 Strength of Acids & Bases
The STRENGTH of an Acid or Base depends on how completely a compound is broken apart to form ions when dissolved in water The CONCENTRATION of an Acid or Base refers to the amount of an Acid or Base in a solution. *

5 Strength vs. Concentration
The size of the dot represents how completely the compound is broken apart to form H+ ions: The Strength of the Acid. -Acid A -Acid B Even though Acid B is stronger than Acid A, Acid A has a higher concentration: A larger amount of the acid in its beaker.

6 Ions Ions are atoms that have either a positive or negative charge.
pH measures the concentration of hydronium ions (H3O+)in a solution What is a Hydronium ion? Hydronium ions (H3O+) form when Hydrogen ions (H+) bond with water* H+ + H2O H3O+

7 pH pH’s of less than 7 are - Acidic pH’s of greater than 7 are - Basic
pH of exactly 7 is - Neutral

8 Finding the pH To determine the pH of something, Use:
pH paper – has a plant extract that changes color at different pH levels. pH meter – detects how easily electricity can flow through the solution. *

9 Salts A Salt is a compound formed when negative ions from an acid bond with the positive ions of a base Salts form through the process of Neutralization. When Acids and Bases are added together (or Neutralized) their ions form: Salt and Water*

10 Example: Neutralization of Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide
H2O HCl- + NaOH+ H3O+ + Cl- + Na+ + OH- Water forms: H3O+ + OH- 2H2O Salt forms: Na+ + Cl- NaCl What kind of Change is taking place, – Physical or Chemical?*

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