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Published bySamara Bradney Modified over 8 years ago
Intro to Acids & Bases General Properties Indicators Neutralization Reactions
Acids A compound that produces hydronium ions (H 3 O + ) when dissolved in water – Ex: HCl + H 2 O → H 3 O + + Cl - Common Acids: Hydrochloric acid (HCl), Nitric Acid (HNO 3 ), Sulfuric Acid (H 2 SO 4 )
General Properties of Acids Sour Taste – Ex: Citric Acid (citrus fruits), Acetic Acid (vinegar) Reacts with metals – to produce H 2 gas Produces certain color changes in indicators – blue litmus → red
Bases A compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH - ) when dissolved in water – Ex: NaOH → Na + + OH - Common Bases: – Calcium Hydroxide Ca(OH) 2 ; Sodium Hydroxide NaOH; Magnesium Hydroxide Mg(OH) 2
General Properties of Bases Bitter Taste – Ex: Chocolate w/o sugar contains the base theobromine Slippery Feel (soap) Produces certain color changes in indicators – red litmus → blue
Indicators Any substance that will change colors based on different conditions, especially in the presence of acids or bases – Examples: litmus paper, phenolphthalein
pH Scale A scale from 0-14 that describes the concentration of hydronium ions (H 3 O + ) in a solution – Remember: H 3 O + ions are produced by acids when they dissolve in water The pH scale measures the “acidity” of a solution
pH Scale 7 Neutral 0-6 Acids 8-14 Bases
pH Values Lower pH values = more H3O+ ions – More acidic Higher pH values = less H3O+ ions – Less acidic (more basic)
pH Scale (w/examples) 7 Neutral 0-6 Acids 8-14 Bases
Neutralization Reactions Double Replacement reaction between an acid and a base The negative ions (anions) from the acid combine with the positive ions from the base (cations) to form an ionic compound called a salt Second product is water
Neutralization Reactions HCl + NaOH → HCl + NaOH → HOH + NaCl HNO 3 + Mg(OH) 2 → ? HNO 3 + Mg(OH) 2 → Mg(NO 3 ) 2 +H 2 O H 2 SO 4 + LiOH → ? H 2 SO 4 + LiOH → Li 2 SO 4 + H 2 O
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